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POPULATION FLUCTUATION AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TRIOZA AGUACATE (HEMIPTERA: TRIOZIDAE) ON AVOCADO (LAURACEAE) IN MICHOACAN, MEXICO

María Graciela González-Santarosa, Néstor Bautista-Martínez, Jesús Romero-Nápoles, Ángel Rebollar-Alviter, José Luis Carrillo-Sánchez and Luis Martín Hernández-Fuentes
The Florida Entomologist
Vol. 97, No. 4 (December, 2014), pp. 1783-1793
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/24364141
Page Count: 11
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
POPULATION FLUCTUATION AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TRIOZA AGUACATE (HEMIPTERA: TRIOZIDAE) ON AVOCADO (LAURACEAE) IN MICHOACAN, MEXICO
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Abstract

The psyllid Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae) causes deformation of leaves and young shoots of avocado. In recent years, population densities of this pest in avocado orchards have increased. The objectives of this study were to determine seasonal fluctuations of the populations of eggs, nymphs, and adults of T. aguacate, how these fluctuations are related to the incidence of avocado vegetative shoots, temperature and rainfall at 3 different altitudes in Michoacan, Mexico, i.e., 2,130 m, 1,860 m and 1,293 m. In addition, we attempted to determine the spatial distributions of nymphs and adults found on avocado vegetative shoots. We sampled the populations of adult and immature T. aguacate every 20 days from Jan 2012 to Jul 2013. To estimate population densities, 9 trees were selected in each orchard, and the trees were distributed in the form of a cross. From each replicate of trees, 4 shoots were randomly collected, and the eggs and nymphs were counted on them. Adults counts were obtained from yellow traps established at the 4 cardinal points in each tree. During the same period, young vegetative shoots, temperature and rainfall were recorded. The results showed that this psyllid was not present at all in the orchard located at the low altitude level of 1,293 m. The psyllid was present at the medium altitude site from Jan to Jun, and from Dec to Jun at the high altitude site. All of the development stages were most abundant from Mar to May, when avocado vegetative shoots were most abundant in both years. The abundance of eggs and nymphs showed a positive relationship with young vegetative shoots, a negative relationship with rainfall, and the eggs showed a positive relationship with temperature. The incidence of adults was strongly related with spring budding, but not significantly correlated with temperature. Both nymphs and adults had an aggregated spatial distribution. El psílido Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae) causa deformación de hojas y brotes jóvenes de aguacate y en los últimos años ha incrementado su densidad de población en los huertos. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la fluctuación poblacional de huevos, ninfas y adultos de T. aguacate y la relación que guarda su incidencia con la abundancia de brotes, la temperatura y la precipitación pluvial en diferentes altitudes en Michoacán, México, además de conocer su distribución espacial en los brotes. El trabajo se realizó con muestreos cada 20 días, de enero de 2012 a julio de 2013. Para estimar la densidad de población se seleccionaron nueve árboles en cada huerto, distribuidos en forma de cruz. De cada árbol se colectaron cuatro brotes al azar, donde se contabilizó el número de huevos y ninfas. Los adultos se contabilizaron en trampas amarillas colocadas en cada árbol en los cuatro puntos cardinales. Durante el mismo periodo, se registró la brotación vegetativa, temperatura y precipitación pluvial. Los resultados mostraron que el psílido no se presentó en el huerto con menor altitud (1,293 m), y que en los dos huertos donde estuvo presente, lo hizo en dos periodos (enero a junio de 2012, y enero a junio de 2013); la mayor incidencia de todos los estados de desarrollo se presentó de marzo a mayo, coincidiendo con la abundancia de brotes vegetativos, en ambos periodos. La abundancia de huevos y ninfas mostró una relación positiva con los brotes vegetativos jóvenes, una relación negativa con la precipitación, y los huevos mostraron una relación positiva con la temperatura. La incidencia de los adultos estuvo fuertemente relacionada con la brotación de primavera, pero no presento relación significativa con la temperatura. Tanto las ninfas como los adultos presentaron una distribución espacial en agregados.

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