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Sex Determination and Sex Balance in Melandrium

H. E. Warmke
American Journal of Botany
Vol. 33, No. 8 (Oct., 1946), pp. 648-660
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2437345
Page Count: 13
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Sex Determination and Sex Balance in Melandrium
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Abstract

Numerous polyploid and aneuploid plants of Melandrium dioicum have been obtained and used to study the role of the X chromosome, of the Y chromosome, and of the autosomes in sex determination. The following series: (1) 2A XX, 2A XXY, (2) 4A XXX, 4A XXXY, (3) 4A XXXX, 4A XXXXY, and (4) 4A XX, 4A XXY, 4A XXYY, in each of which the number of Y chromosomes is the sole variable, indicate that the Y has strong male-determining genes. The series (1) 2A XY, 2A XXY, and (2) 4A XY, 4A XXY, 4A XXXY, and 4A XXXXY, in which the number of X chromosomes is the variable, indicate that the X contains female determiners, but less potent than the male determiners of a single Y. Evidence derived from 2A XXY, 3A XXY, 4A XXY plants and from an investigation of the X/A ratio, which may range from 0.5 to 1.5 without altering sex, indicate a relative unimportance of the autosomes in balanced sets in sex determination. Moreover, a study of a number of trisomic plants and of the offspring of triploids has failed to show any sex determiners, either male or female, in individual autosomes. A brief review of the literature relating to the location of sex determiners is given, including a discussion of methods and some theoretical considerations.

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