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Cell Division and Cell Elongation in Leaf Development of Xanthium pensylvanicum

Roman Maksymowych
American Journal of Botany
Vol. 50, No. 9 (Oct., 1963), pp. 891-901
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2439776
Page Count: 11
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Cell Division and Cell Elongation in Leaf Development of Xanthium pensylvanicum
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Abstract

Cell sion in different parts of the lamina and cell enlargement of the upper epidermis and palisade mesophyll were studied in vertical and horizontal planes during the entire period of growth. The leaf plastochron index (L.P.I.) was used for designation of developmental stages of the leaf. From celllength data and measurements of cell area the absolute rates of elongation (dX/dpl) and relative rates of elongation (dlnX/dpl) were calculated. The increase in number of cells in the early plastochrons is exponential and cell division stops at about L.P.I. 3.0. Divisions cease first at the tip and last in the basal lobes of the leaf, indicating a basipetal trend of this process. Cells are elongating while division is in progress, though this elongation proceeds at low rates and for a limited time. Palisade cells elongate in the vertical plane at higher rates and at least 1 plastochron sooner than the upper epidermis. The latter cells, however, expand in area with higher absolute and relative rates, and about 2 plastochrons in advance of the palisade mesophyll. The rates are not constant during the whole period of development but are represented by the bell-shaped curves with maximal peaks around L.P.I. 3.0 for the middle portion of the lamina. The increase in volume of the 2 types of cells stops around L.P.I. 5.0, or shortly after. In addition to unequal durations of cellular enlargement, both tissues expand at differential rates, which for the upper epidermis is high in the horizontal plane but low in the vertical plane, while the opposite is true for the palisade mesophyll. It is suggested that palisades and spongy mesophyll are separated and intercellular spaces formed during the course of development because of the greater rate of expansion in area of the upper epidermis.

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