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Cine-Photomicrography of Low Temperature Effects on Cytoplasmic Streaming, Nucleolar Activity and Mitosis in Single Tobacco Cells in Microculture
T. M. Das, A. C. Hildebrandt and A. J. Riker
American Journal of Botany
Vol. 53, No. 3 (Mar., 1966), pp. 253-259
Published by: Botanical Society of America, Inc.
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2439794
Page Count: 7
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Living, unstained, single tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum x N. glutinosa) cells (clone H-196) were grown in microcultures in liquid medium containing sucrose, mineral salts, coconut milk and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Time-lapse motion pictures were taken through interference and phase microscopes. The movement of cytoplasm and cell organelles gradually slowed and ultimately completely ceased as the cell was cooled by dry ice. The cessation of the movement of cell organelles took place between 5 and -7C. The typical cytoplasmic morphology was lost as the movement slowed. The cytoplasmic strands thinned out and numerous small vacuoles formed. During rewarming of the cell to room temperature, the vacuoles were replaced by numerous small globular masses of cytoplasm which reorganized into cytoplasmic strands. The normal movement of cytoplasmic strands and cell organelles was resumed. A number of small nucleolar vacuoles at room temperature gradually expanded and coalesced to form a large central vacuole which underwent further expansion and then contracted rapidly. Four different concentric zones were visible across the nucleolar region. A white, highly reflecting, glossy substance appeared on the surface of the expanding vacuole. The position of the nucleus during contraction and expansion was never stationary. Some nucleolar vacuoles remained open for an indefinite period of time when the cell was cooled to 5C. No change was noticed during cooling, but during rewarming to room temperature, the nucleolar vacuole was partially closed. The pumping action of the nucleolar vacuole suggested important exchanges of metabolites between the nucleolus and the cytoplasm. A single cell of tobacco did not divide at -10C, but mitosis proceeded upon cooling the cell to -12-15C for a brief period. Different phases of mitosis, specifically formation of the cell plate, cell wall, and separation of nuclei, were delayed by low temperature treatment.
American Journal of Botany © 1966 Botanical Society of America, Inc.