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Chromosome Pairing and Pollen Fertility in Interspecific Hybrids of Species of Parthenium (Asteraceae)

Ahmad Hashemi, Jan E. West and J. Giles Waines
American Journal of Botany
Vol. 73, No. 7 (Jul., 1986), pp. 980-988
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2444115
Page Count: 9
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Chromosome Pairing and Pollen Fertility in Interspecific Hybrids of Species of Parthenium (Asteraceae)
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Abstract

Meiotic analyses and pollen viability tests were performed on F1 hybrids between diploid guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray 2n = 36), P. rollinsianum Rzedowski (2n = 36), P. alpinum var. tetraneuris Barneby (2n = 36), and P. alpinum var. alpinum Nutt. (2n = 36). Parthenium chromosomes are small and karyomorphologically similar, and meiotic analysis is difficult because of chromosome clumping. However, cytogenetic studies at metaphase I indicated univalents can be seen in a lateral view of the metaphase plate. Chromosome pairing and the number of univalents varied within and between the interspecific hybrids, with an average univalent number of 1.54 for the P. rollinsianum hybrids, 2.36 for the P. alpinum var. tetraneuris hybrids, and 2.46 for the P. alpinum var. alpinum hybrids. Pollen viability tests for the parental species and the hybrids were conducted by germination of pollen grains on stigmas. The percent of viable pollen recorded for the diploid guayule hybrids with P. rollinsianum, P. alpinum var. tetraneuris, and P. alpinum var. alpinum are 21.94, 13.47, and 11.17, respectively. The degree of chromosome pairing and pollen viability is striking because there are many morphological differences between the parents. The chromosome homology of these species based on their pairing behavior allows for the design of a backcross breeding program that would permit the transfer of the desirable characteristics from these species into diploid guayule.

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