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Anatomical Studies on First-Year Winter Injured Red Spruce Foliage
Gregory T. Adams, Timothy D. Perkins and Richard M. Klein
American Journal of Botany
Vol. 78, No. 9 (Sep., 1991), pp. 1199-1206
Published by: Botanical Society of America, Inc.
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2444924
Page Count: 8
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Foliar injury to red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) occurred during the winter of 1989-1990. A range of damage was observed among individual trees, first-year needles on a shoot, and often within an individual needle. Anatomical comparisons of first-year foliage were made to establish patterns of necrosis due to winter injury. Mesophyll tissue was most affected by winter damage. Guard cells adjacent to injured mesophyll cells were also consistently damaged. Early evidence of injury was apparent as an off-color staining of the cytoplasm and slight plasmolysis of the protoplast. Organelle integrity was lost, and there was an extensive reduction of cytoplasmic volume. Spherical bodies of unidentified composition often appeared within the cytoplasm as subcellular integrity was lost. Severe damage resulted in complete loss of cellular structural integrity and adhesion of residual cellular contents to the cell walls. Narrow transition zones between healthy and necrotic tissues were observed, and upper surfaces tended to be more severely affected. There appeared to be a cellular specificity to winter injury within the mesophyll. Completely necrotic cells were often adjacent to apparently healthy cells, and a wide range of injury could be observed within a relatively small area of the needle in partially damaged foliage.
American Journal of Botany © 1991 Botanical Society of America, Inc.