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Cytological and Interfertility Relationships of Arachis Section Arachis

H. T. Stalker, J. S. Dhesi, D. C. Parry and J. H. Hahn
American Journal of Botany
Vol. 78, No. 2 (Feb., 1991), pp. 238-246
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2445247
Page Count: 9
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Cytological and Interfertility Relationships of Arachis Section Arachis
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Abstract

Twenty-nine recently introduced diploid (2n = 2x = 20) accessions of section Arachis plus an A. correntina (Burk) Krap. et Greg. nom nud. control were hybridized to the diploid A-genome species A duranensis Krap. et Greg. nom nud. (acc. 7988), the diploid B-genome species A. batizocoi Krap. et Greg. (acc. 9484), and with two subspecies of the A-B genome (2n = 4x = 40) A hypogaea cultivars NC 4 and Argentine. Most attempted crosses were successful and the resulting plants were vigorous. However, A. batizocoi x accession 30008 hybrids died as seedlings and A. batizocoi x accession 30017 produced only dwarf plants. The 710 diploid F1s from A. batizocoi were generally sterile, while those from A. duranensis had fertility ranges from 5% to 84%. Meiotic chromosome relationships in diploid crosses were cytologically evaluated in 185 plants plus tester accessions. Most taxa in section Arachis have an A genome, only A. batizocoi accessions have a B genome, a D genome is represented by accessions 30091 and 30099, and two other genomic groups, represented by accessions 30011 and 30033, may be present in the section. Most cytological differentiation was found among species originally collected in southern and eastern Bolivia. On the other hand, species collected at the extremes of the distribution of section Arachis species (northern Argentina to north-central Brazil) were cytologically very similar. Evidence is presented for speciation in Arachis being associated with both genetic differentiation and with translocated chromosomes. All taxa in the section except the D-genome species are believed to be cross-compatible with A. hypogaea, so germplasm introgression from most Arachis species should be possible.

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