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Inflorescence Bracts of Fossil and Extant Tilia in North America, Europe, and Asia: Patterns of Morphologic Divergence and Biogeographic History
Steven R. Manchester
American Journal of Botany
Vol. 81, No. 9 (Sep., 1994), pp. 1176-1185
Published by: Botanical Society of America, Inc.
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2445480
Page Count: 10
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The enlarged inflorescence bract diagnostic of extant Tilia has an extensive Tertiary fossil record in the Northern Hemisphere. Diversity of bract morphology, and the extent of adnation between peduncle and bract, is reviewed for fossil and extant species of Tilia. An extinct type of bract with an orbicular outline and palmate venation is documented by the fossil species Tilia circularis (Chaney) comb. nov. from the early Oligocene of Oregon and is designated Type A. Living species of the genus have elongate bracts with predominately pinnate venation that are borne in two basic configurations: Type B, with the peduncle fused only to the extreme base of the bract lamina, as in extant Tilia endochrysea Hand.-Mzt. of southern China; and Type C with the peduncle fused medially along the basal one-third of the bract lamina, as in most extant species. Bracts of Type B were widely distributed in the Tertiary of western North America (late Eocene to Miocene) and Europe (early Miocene to Pliocene), while those of Type C are known in the fossil condition only from the middle and late Tertiary of Asia and Pliocene of Europe. The bracts of T. circularis, like those of type B, are borne on relatively long stalks and have the peduncle fused only at the extreme base. The fossil record supports recognition of the following characters as apomorphic in Tilia bract evolution: bracts sessile, peduncle adnate to the upper surface of the bract, and pinnate bract venation.
American Journal of Botany © 1994 Botanical Society of America, Inc.