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Phylogenetic Analysis of the Hard Pines (Pinus subgenus Pinus, Pinaceae) from Chloroplast DNA Restriction Site Analysis
A. B. Krupkin, A. Liston and S. H. Strauss
American Journal of Botany
Vol. 83, No. 4 (Apr., 1996), pp. 489-498
Published by: Botanical Society of America, Inc.
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2446218
Page Count: 10
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Phylogenetic analysis of plastid DNA restriction site and rearrangement mutations suggests a number of major revisions to taxonomy and phylogenetic concepts in the hard pines. Total genomic DNA from 18 species that sampled all nine subsections was digested with 19 restriction enzymes, blotted, and probed with 70% of the Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) chloroplast genome, or. with clones encompassing the entire chloroplast genome of Pinus contorta. A total of 204 site mutations and five rearrangement mutations were generated, of which 126 were phylogenetically informative. Wagner parsimony analyses revealed 11 clades that were strongly supported by bootstrap and decay index analyses. All North American species except P resinosa formed a distinct monophyletic group that was strongly separated from the Eurasian species. Within the Eurasian clade subsect. Sylvestres was polyphyletic; its Mediterranean species were closely allied with members of sect. Pinea. Sect. Pinea appeared polyphyletic as well; both species of its subsect. Leiophyllae showed a close affinity to Mesoamerican pines of subsect. Oocarpae in sect. Pinus. Within the North American pines subsects. Ponderosae and Oocarpae were polyphyletic. Despite its shallow fossil record, subsect. Contortae emerged as a sister group to all of the North American pines apart from P resinosa, which was allied with Eurasian species of subsect. Sylvestres. The remaining North American subsections formed two groups: a poorly resolved clade with subsects. Ponderosae and Sabinianae, and sequentially nested clades represented by P radiata; P taeda; representatives of subsects. Oocarpae and Ponderosae from Mesoamerica; and subsect. Leiophyllae. We present estimates of divergence times for each of these major clades based on molecular clocks calibrated using two hard pine fossil observations.
American Journal of Botany © 1996 Botanical Society of America, Inc.