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Adaptive Polymorphism of Behavior Evolved in Laboratory Populations of Drosophila willistoni

H. M. L. de Souza, A. B. da Cunha and E. P. dos Santos
The American Naturalist
Vol. 104, No. 936 (Mar. - Apr., 1970), pp. 175-189
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2459193
Page Count: 15
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Adaptive Polymorphism of Behavior Evolved in Laboratory Populations of Drosophila willistoni
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Abstract

Laboratory populations of Drosophila willistoni kept in population cages developed an adaptive behavioral polymorphism. The larvae were able to survive only on the food when the populations were first established. Larvae able to survive outside the food cups appeared with time and became frequent in the populations. The genetic difference between larvae that prefer to pupate on the food and larvae that prefer the bottom of the cages is simple and due mainly to a single major gene difference. Outside and inside larvae differ in their preferences for a place to pupate, in their rates of development, in number of bristles, in weight, in degree of activity and phototaxis, and in eclosion rate. Polymorphic populations with both types of flies reach larger sizes and greater biomass than monomorphic populations. The genes of preference for pupation outside the food are rapidly eliminated in populations kept in 250-cm3 bottles.

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