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Journal Article

On the Development of the Caryopsis

Rodney H. True
Botanical Gazette
Vol. 18, No. 6 (Jun., 1893), pp. 212-226
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Page Count: 18

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Topics: Integument, Ovaries, Epidermis, Epidermal cells, Ovules, Plant cells, Grains, Cell walls, Hydrates, Endosperm
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I summarize my results and conclusions as follows: I.-In the corn, wheat and oat, at the time of fertilization, the single ovule is furnished with two integuments, which are more or less complete. As development proceeds (1) the outer integument soon disappears; (2) the inner cells of the ovary wall are absorbed in varying proportions; (3) the tissue of the nucellus is absorbed, with local exceptions. II.-At maturity, these remain as seed coverings: (1) the external portion of the ovary wall, in varying proportion, forming the pericarp; (2) the inner integument persisting in a state of compression. The epidermis of the nucellus also persists, though much compressed. III.-Late in the development of the fruit, the remaining (inner) integument becomes soldered to the adjacent inner cells of the pericarp forming the fruit correctly described by Mirbel under the name of "cerium," and rechristened by Richard the "caryopsis." This investigation was pursued in the botanical laboratory of the University of Wisconsin, under the direction of Prof. Charles R. Barnes. For his kind suggestions and help I wish to express my sincere gratitude.

Notes and References

This item contains 12 references.

  • 1
    Mirbel: : Ann. Mus. Nat. XIII
  • 2
    Richard, L.: Analyse des embryons et endorhizes.
  • 3
    Schleiden: Ueber die Bildung des Eichens und Ent- stehung des Embryo bei Phanerogamen. Nova Acta Leopoldinam Carolinae Academiam. 1837.
  • 4
    Nowaki, Anton: Untersuchungen uiber das Reifen des Getreides, etc. Verlag der Buchhandlung des Waisen- hauses. Halle 1870.
  • 5
    Kudelka, F.: Ueber die Entwickelung und den Bau der Frucht- und Samenschale unserer Cerealen. Landw. Jahrbücher. 1875, p. 460. Published also at Leipzig in I875 underthe same title as an Inaugural-Disserta- tion.
  • 6
    Johannsen, W.: Om frohviden og dens udvekling hos byg. 1885.
  • 7
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Jumelle, Henri: Note sur la constitution du fruit des Graminees. Compt. Rend.CVII, 285.
    • -Same ab- stracted in Just's Bot. Jahresber. 1888, 788.
  • 8
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Jumelle, Henri: Sur les graines a deux teguments. Bull. de la Soc. Bot. de France, 1888, p. 35.
    • Abstract in Just's Bot. Jahresber. 1888, p. 748.
  • 9
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Zoebl, A.: Der anatomische Bau der Fruchtscbale der Gerste, Hordezim disticlum L. Verh. d. naturf. Ver- eins in Brünn, xxvii (1889). 26.
    • —Abstract in Bot. Centralb. 1890, p. 179.
  • 10
    Van Tieghem, P.: Traité de Botanique, I. 924. Paris, 1891.
  • 11
    Holzner: Bot. Centralb.xii (1882). 107.
  • 12
    Hackel, F.: True Grasses, translated by Scribner and Southworth. Henry Holt & Co., N. Y. 1890.