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Journal Article

The Vascular Anatomy of the Seedling of Dioon edule

Reinhardt Thiessen
Botanical Gazette
Vol. 46, No. 5 (Nov., 1908), pp. 357-380
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Page Count: 31

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Topics: Cotyledons, Xylem, Leaves, Plant cells, Cylinders, Girdles, Seedlings, Petioles, Embryos, Pith
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1. The vascular cylinder of the embryo is a protostele, but becomes a siphonostele in the seedling. It is very short and squarish in cross-section, one of the diagonals of the section being at right angles to the inner faces of the cotyledons, and the other parallel with them. Near each of the four corners is a group of protoxylem cells, the long diameter of whose section extends along the diagonal. 2. The four protoxylem groups extend downward to form the protoxylem of the root. 3. From each protoxylem group a foliar strand runs outward for a short distance and then branches, the branches separating at a wide angle and continuing outward until under the cotyledon, when they ascend it; the result is four strands for each cotyledon. The two protoxylem groups on the diagonal perpendicular to the inner faces of the cotyledons give rise to the two inner strands of each cotyledon; while the two protoxylem groups on the diagonal parallel with the inner faces of the cotyledons give rise to the two outer strands of the cotyledons, that is, one branch runs into the outer edge of the one and the other branch (from the same group) runs into the edge of the other cotyledon (opposite the first). 4. For each leaf or scale four strands leave the vascular cylinder at points not definitely located but well-distributed; two strands of each organ leave the cylinder approximately on the same side as the leaf for which they are destined, and run more or less directly through the cortex into the central or abaxial part of the petiole without branching; while the other two strands of each organ leave the cylinder approximately on the opposite side and describe a wide curve around it, the one in one direction and the other in the other, and finally ascend in the dorsal or adaxial part of the petiole, branching repeatedly. The girdle on the side toward which the spiral may be said to turn is generally the longer one. 5. When the cotyledonary vascular strands leave the vascular cylinder they are endarch, gradually become mesarch in their upward course, and finally approach the exarch condition. 6. The foliar vascular strands also are endarch at their separation from the vascular cylinder, and in their upward course become mesarch and finally exarch. In the very young leaf this transition extends through the whole base and petiole uniformly; but in the adult leaf it is comparatively rapid through the base up to the lower part of the petiole, where only a few centrifugal elements remain, and which remain uniform until in the rachis, where the transition is completed, so that in the pinna only centripetal xylem is left. 7. In the lower stretches of the foliar strands a considerable amount of the centrifugal wood is primary xylem. 8. In the foliar strands of the embryo and seedling, the xylem tissue, so far as developed, from below upward passes from an inner to a central position in reference to the whole bundle. 9. The girdle is established very early, and is horizontal from the beginning.

Notes and References

This item contains 6 references.

Literature Cited
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    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • BERTRAND, C. EG., et RENAULT B., Remarques sur les faisceaux foliaires des Cycadees actuelles et sur la signification morphologique des tissues des faisceaux unripolaires diploxyles. Arch. Bot. Nord. France 2:232-242. 1886.
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