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Development of Cyathus fascicularis, C. striatus, and Crucibulum vulgare
Leva B. Walker
Vol. 70, No. 1 (Jul., 1920), pp. 1-24
Published by: The University of Chicago Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2470323
Page Count: 30
1. All three species are easily grown on artificial media. Mature fruit bodies were obtained only in cultures of Cyathus fascicularis. 2. The mycelia of all are very similar except for color. Clamp connections are abundantly present, and conspicuous mycelial strands are formed. The cells of Cyathus fascicularis are binucleate or composed of segments with paired nuclei. 3. The basidiocarps of Cyathus fascicularis and C. striatus arise from mycelial strands in all cases observed; while those of Crucibulum vulgare may arise from mycelial strands, dense mats of hyphae, or from the interior of old peridia. 4. The primordium of the basidiocarp seems to have its origin slightly below the tip of the strand, and consists of closely interwoven filaments smaller than those of the strand. 5. The first marked internal differentiation in all three consists of the gelatinization of a zone of hyphae in a region that will become a part of the inner wall of the peridium. A zone of closely interwoven filaments just to the inside of this forms the boundary between gleba and peridium. 6. The origin and development of the peridioles is similar in all. Each peridiole originates around a center, toward which the ends of filaments converge. The structure of the walls of the peridioles differs only in relative proportions. 7. The first peridioles to be differentiated in Cyathus fascicularis are toward the base of the gleba, and later other peridioles develop above them. The peridioles at the base mature before those nearer the top of the gleba. In C. striatus and Crucibulum vulgare the peridioles appear almost simultaneously throughout the glebal region; but the upper peridioles in C. striatus mature before the lower ones; while in C. vulgare the development is more uniform. 8. The funiculus of Crucibulum differs greatly in form from that of Cyathus, especially in the length of the strand at the base. The origin is similar in both. 9. The most marked difference between Crucibulum and Cyathus is in the structure of the walls of the peridia. In Cyathus a middle pseudoparenchymatic layer is present which is entirely wanting in Crucibulum. 10. During the expansion of the basidiocarp in Cyathus the peridium is pulled off from over the glebal region, leaving parts of the ungelatinized ground tissue to form, for a time, a thin covering (the epiphragm). In Crucibulum the epiphragm consists of the undifferentiated primordial tissue covered with branched hairs. This undergoes gelatinization at maturity. 11. The spores of all are constantly binucleate.
Notes and References
This item contains 9 references.
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2DEBARY, A., Beiträge zur Morphologie und Physiologie der Pilze. Leipzig. 1866.
3—,Comparative morphology and biology of the fungi, Mycetozoa, and bacteria. pp. 319-322. 1887.
4EIDAM, E., Keimung der Sporen und die Entdehung der Fruchtk6rper bie den Nidularien. Cohn's Beitr. Biol.2:221-245. 1876-77.
5FRIES, R. E., Om utveckligen of fruktkroppen och peridiolema has Nidu- laria. Sartryck ur Swensk. Botanisk Tidskrift4: part 2. 1910.
6KNEIP, HANS, Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Hymenomyceten III. Zeit. Bot. 7:369-398. 1915.
7MOLLAIRD, M., Le cycle de developpement du Crucibulum vulgare Tul. et de quelques champignons superieurs obtenu en cultures pures. Bull. Soc. Bot. France56: 91-96. 1909.
8SACHS, JUL., Morphologie d. Crucibulum vulgare Tul. Bot. Zeit. 13:833-845, 849-86I. 1855-
9TULASNE, L. and C., Recherches sur l'organ d. Nidulariees. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. III.1:41-I07. 1844.