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Bacteriophages and Fecal Bacteria as Indicators of Chlorination Efficiency of Biologically Treated Wastewater
A. H. Havelaar and Th. J. Nieuwstad
Journal (Water Pollution Control Federation)
Vol. 57, No. 11 (Nov., 1985), pp. 1084-1088
Published by: Water Environment Federation
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25042794
Page Count: 5
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The resistance of conventional bacterial indicators of fecal pollution (thermotolerant coliforms, fecal streptococci, and Clostridium spores) to chlorination of biologically treated wastewater was compared with that of two groups of bacteriophages: somatic coliphages and F specific bacteriophages. The effluent had been nitrified to varying degrees (classified as none, moderate, or good) prior to chlorination. Reduction of thermotolerant coliforms and streptococci increased in moderately nitrified water. Inactivation of thermotolerant coliforms was reduced in well nitrified water, probably because of chlorine consumption by the breakpoint reaction with the last traces of ammonia. Bacteriophage inactivation increased with all degrees of nitrification. The organisms are listed in order of increasing resistance: thermotolerant coliforms < fecal streptococci < somatic coliphages < F specific bacteriophages < spores of sulphite-reducing Clostridia. Reduction of thermotolerant coliforms was significantly correlated with total chlorine residual. Reductions of both groups of bacteriophages and of fecal streptococci were correlated with chlorine dose.
Journal (Water Pollution Control Federation) © 1985 Water Environment Federation