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Effects of Wastewater Treatment and Seawater Dilution in Reducing Lethal Toxicity of Municipal Wastewater to Sheepshead Minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) and Pink Shrimp (Penaeus duorarum)
David R. Young, Donald J. Baumgartner, Samuel C. Snedaker, Lanny Udey, Melvin S. Brown and Eugene F. Corcoran
Research Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation
Vol. 62, No. 6 (Sep. - Oct., 1990), pp. 763-770
Published by: Water Environment Federation
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25043911
Page Count: 8
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The study was conducted to determine the effects of treatment and seawater dilution of municipal wastewater on marine organisms. An experimental facility was built in southeast Florida that provided both unchlorinated and chlorinated effluent from three standard treatments: primary settling, chemical flocculation, and activated sludge secondary treatment. Exposure tests lasting longer than one month were conducted on the sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) and the pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum), with each of these six effluent types at seawater dilution ratios of 30:1, 100:1, and 300:1. The shrimp showed a much more sensitive response than the minnow. Almost 100% mortality occurred for shrimp exposed to the unchlorinated 30:1 seawater dilutions of primary-settled wastewater, while mortality for the other two effluents were similar to controls. Mortality could not be attributed to any of the chemicals measured in the wastewater. For the 30:1 dilution experiments, chlorination usually resulted in much higher toxicity; increasing the dilution factor from 30:1 to 100:1 reduced the mortality observed (in both unchlorinated and chlorinated tests) essentially to control levels. Little bioaccumulation of metals or chlorinated organics in exposed specimens was observed.
Research Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation © 1990 Water Environment Federation