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Journal Article

Juan Bautista Villalpando and Sacred Architecture in the Seventeenth Century

Sergey R. Kravtsov
Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians
Vol. 64, No. 3 (Sep., 2005), pp. 312-339
DOI: 10.2307/25068167
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25068167
Page Count: 28
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Juan Bautista Villalpando and Sacred Architecture in the Seventeenth Century
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Abstract

The treatise by Juan Bautista Villalpando and Hierónimo Prado presenting a graphic reconstruction of the Temple of Jerusalem enjoyed great popularity in the Protestant and Catholic countries in the seventeenth century. Recognizable elements from the reconstruction such as the Solomonic order, curved buttresses, and nine-bay planning were quoted in Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish sacred buildings. The nine-bay design of a sanctuary as a substitution for the Villalpandian nine-bay composition of the Temple compound was invented independently by Giacomo Medleni in Poland, Jacob van Campen in Holland, and apparently by Christopher Wren in England. The nine-bay four-pier synagogue design originated in Poland in the 1620s and was exported to the Low Countries. It was eagerly adopted by the Portuguese Jewish elite as a recognizable icon of the Temple. The common base for the interest in the Solomonic elements in the synagogue architecture of the seventeenth century in Poland and Holland was apparently messianic mysticism. This kind of ideology had little impact upon the Protestant architecture related to the reconstruction of the Temple, since it was overshadowed there by other typological concepts, including that of the New Children of Israel.

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