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Should Trees Have Managerial Standing? Toward Stakeholder Status for Non-Human Nature

Mark Starik
Journal of Business Ethics
Vol. 14, No. 3 (Mar., 1995), pp. 207-217
Published by: Springer
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25072639
Page Count: 11
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Should Trees Have Managerial Standing? Toward Stakeholder Status for Non-Human Nature
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Abstract

Most definitions of the concept of "stakeholder" include only human entities. This paper advances the argument that the non-human natural environment can be integrated into the stakeholder management concept. This argument includes the observations that the natural environment is finally becoming recognized as a vital component of the business environment, that the stakeholder concept is more than a human political/economic one, and that non-human nature currently is not adequately represented by other stakeholder groups. In addition, this paper asserts that any of several stakeholder management processes can readily include the natural environment as one or more stakeholders of organizations. Finally, the point is made that this integration would provide a more holistic, value-oriented, focused and strategic approach to stakeholder management, potentially benefitting both nature and organizations.

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