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The Biogeography of Apis cerana as Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Data

Deborah R. Smith and Robert H. Hagen
Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society
Vol. 69, No. 4, Supplement: Special Publication Number 2: Proceedings of the Eickwort Memorial Symposium (Oct., 1996), pp. 294-310
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25085726
Page Count: 17
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The Biogeography of Apis cerana as Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Data
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Abstract

The non-coding intergenic region of the Apis cerana mitochondrial genome provides a rapidly evolving source of characters for study in intra-specific biogeography. We sequenced the non-coding intergenic region in bees from 110 colonies of A. cerana collected over most of the species' range. We found two major forms of non-coding sequence: a western form, occurring in bees from India, Sri Lanka and the Andaman Islands; and an eastern form, occurring in bees from Nepal, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Hong Kong, Korea, Japan, and India. Thus the eastern and western haplotypes co-occur in India. Within the eastern form, phylogenetic analysis of sequence variation indicated two well supported groups of haplotypes: a "Sundaland group," which was found in bees from peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java, Bali, Lombok, Timor, and Flores; and a "Philippine group" which was found in bees from Luzon, Mindanao, and Sangihe. Haplotypes from both the Sundaland group and the Philippine group were found on the island of Sulawesi, suggesting that this island was colonized independently by two groups of A. cerana. In addition, the bees of Taiwan and a third group of Sulawesi bees had mitochondrial haplotypes characterized by absence of most of the non-coding sequence. Variation in the sequence of the remaining non-coding region, as well as comparison of coding sequences with other populations of A. cerana, indicate that these are independent deletions of the non-coding region.

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