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Le Nom " refait ": La transmission des prénoms à Florence (XIVe-XVIe siècles)

Christiane Klapisch-Zuber
L'Homme
T. 20, No. 4, Formes de nomination en Europe (Oct. - Dec., 1980), pp. 77-104
Published by: EHESS
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25131714
Page Count: 28
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Le Nom " refait ": La transmission des prénoms à Florence (XIVe-XVIe siècles)
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Abstract

Dans la seconde moitié du XIVe siècle, les enfants de Florence reçoivent déjà plusieurs prénoms au baptême, innovation qui laisse au père - donneur du prénom - un certain jeu entre des contraintes différentes. Les livres domestiques des bourgeois des XIVe-XVIe siècles permettent d'examiner les mécanismes du choix et de la transmission des prénoms. Ils révèlent comment le second prénom place l'enfant sous la protection du saint du jour où il est né ou baptisé, tandis que le premier le rattache à sa parenté et, de façon prédominante, à sa lignée paternelle. L'urgence de " refaire ", réincarner un parent mort, le plus tôt possible après son décès, les perturbations que cette nécessité introduit dans les pratiques ordinaires du choix du prénom, les croyances et les attitudes, enfin, qui sous-tendent ce comportement, sont analysées en rapport avec l'accentuation patrilinéaire du système de filiation et de transmission des biens, manifeste à la fin du Moyen Age. /// At Florence, in the second half of the 14th century, children were given several Christian names; an innovation which set into play different constraints on the name-giver, the father. On the basis of burghers' domestic books dating of the 14th-16th centuries, the mechanisms of first-names choice and transmittal could be examined. The sources revealed that the second Christian name places the child under protection of the saint corresponding to his birth-day or baptism-day, while the first Christian name connects him to his kinship and namely to his father's lineage. The imperative necessity of "re-endorsing", reincarnating any dead kin the sooner after his passing away, and the disturbances ensueing in the ordinary practice of choosing Christian names, as well as the beliefs and attitudes which underlie this behavior, are analyzed in relation with the patrineal trend prevailing in the filiation system and wealth transmittal, a trend which can easily be perceived by the end of the Middle Ages.

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