Access

You are not currently logged in.

Access JSTOR through your library or other institution:

login

Log in through your institution.

Journal Article

On the Birs Nimrud, or the Great Temple of Borsippa

Henry C. Rawlinson
The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland
Vol. 18 (1861), pp. 1-34
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25228697
Page Count: 34

You can always find the topics here!

Topics: Bricks, Cylinders, Brick buildings, Brickworks, Temples, Excavations, Architecture, Spheres, Fall lines, Palaces
Were these topics helpful?
See something inaccurate? Let us know!

Select the topics that are inaccurate.

  • Download PDF
  • Add to My Lists
  • Cite this Item
We're having trouble loading this content. Download PDF instead.

Notes and References

This item contains 24 references.

[Footnotes]
  • 1
    Mr. Taylor in the last number of the Journal, vol. xv. part ii., p. 263 and 264.
  • 1
    I must here observe that Rich and Porter have both been guilty of a most singular error in describing the sides of the Birs, as facing the four cardinal points. In reality it is the four corners, which with a slight error face those points, and the titles of Ker Porter's Plates (vol. ii., plates 69 and 70) must be thus altered throughout the series, his "western face" being S.W.
  • 1
    "Nineveh and Babylon," p. 497
  • 2
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Rich. Compare "Porter's Travels," vol. ii., p. 310
    • "Babylon and Persepolis," pp. 75 and 167.
  • 1
    Travels, vol ii. p. 319.
  • 1
    Rich says that [Unrepresented Characters] signifies Ci brick, of course the burnt sort from the root" —Bab. andPers., p. 69—but I question this very much. The name was given from the white colour of the clay employed, and has nothing to do with burning. The distinction in all the inscriptions between iibin and agur is precisely that now observed by the Arabs ; and in the famous passage of Genesis, chap. xi. v. 3, I understand the meaning to be, " Let us make bricks of libin (or c white clay'), and then burn them." If [Unrepresented Characters] implied "burninar the bricks," what would have been the use of adding the verb [Unrepresented Characters]
  • 1
    Travels, vol. ii, p. 315.
  • 3
    Journ. Asiat, for July, 1853, p. 59
  • 1
    Bab. and Pers., p. 76.
  • 2
    Geograph. Journ., vol. X., Part I., p. 127
  • 1
    Travels, vol. ii., p. 313.
  • 2
    Rich, in describing these bricks, calls them " white, approaching more or less to a yellowish cast, like our Stourbridge or fire-brick." Bab. & Pers., p. 99.
  • 1
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Norberg, in his Sabæan Lexicon, after noticing the burnt appearance of Mercury from the work of M. Abi Taleb, adds, " Sicut etiam solatus et perustus, cum ceteris planetis soli vicinior sit, a Poëtis fingitur. Diet. Poet. Stephan., p. 393."
    • Onomasticon Codicia Nasaria, p. 98.
  • 4
    Mr. Taylor's discovery of these cylinders during his excavations at Mugheir in 1854, is described in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. XV, part ii, page 263.
  • 1
    (As these sheets are passing through the press, I have consulted another cylinder of Nebuchadnezzar's in the British Museum, from the Rich collection, which recapitulates that monarch's architectural labours at Babylon, and is of value for comparison ; later still I have collated the inscription on a cylinder of Neriglissar's which is deposited in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge. London, March, 1856.)
  • 1
    The meaning of this name is still subject to some doubt. I propose to render it "Nebo is the protector against misfortunes," and would thus explain the elements of which it is composed. In the old Hamite language Nebo had three names—Nabiu, Ah, and Pa (or [Unrepresented Characters] and [Unrepresented Characters] but the Semites adopted the uniform pronunciation of Nabu ([Unrepresented Characters]) as is stated in one of the bilingual vocabularies. The second element, Kuduri, I doubtfully refer to the Arabic [Unrepresented Characters] to be troubled by calamity," remarking that, as a verb, the term is constantly used in the inscriptions to denote the " discomfiture of an enemy," while, as a noun, it implies the " tribute " imposed on a conquered country, regarded, no doubt, as a calamity. [Unrepresented Characters] in Heb. (Job xv, 24) applied to the troubles of war, is a kindred form. The third element is certainly a parti- ciple from the root [Unrepresented Characters]u to protect," as the phonetic reading of [Unrepresented Characters] is given in oneof the vocabularies for the monogram [Unrepresented Characters] or [Unrepresented Characters]
  • 2
    [Unrepresented Characters] *s a doubtful word. I compare it, however, with [Unrepresented Characters] [Unrepresented Characters] also used in the inscriptions to denote "dependence on," and refer the forms to a root cognate with [Unrepresented Characters] "to obey." In the E. I. H. lus. Col. i, 1. 4, the equivalent term is Migir, which certainly means " obeying " or " honouring," as la magira means "disobedient." In Samgar Nebo (Jer. xxxix, 3) we have perhaps a Shaphel form of the same root (the [Unrepresented Characters] being used for [Unrepresented Characters]). The meaning is "he who is obedient to Nebo,'*
  • 3
    Missakku here replaces the old Hamite form [Unrepresented Characters] (Rich Cyl. Col. 1, 1. 5 ; and E. I. II. Ins. Col. 1, 1. 5) ; the same term Missakhu occurs in Bel. Cyl. 3, 1. 1 ; and Mus. Cyl. 1, 1. 6. I compare the common Assyrian participle [Unrepresented Characters] vanassik, and refer to the root [Unrepresented Characters] "to kiss," or "pay homage to." [Unrepresented Characters] Ziri (often written [Unrepresented Characters] TT Tziri, see Bel. Cyl. Col. 3, 1. 1; and in Assyrian [Unrepresented Characters] ZirciH), is derived from [Unrepresented Characters] z*ru> "over, above." (Compare [Unrepresented Characters] or [Unrepresented Characters] «a Ugh place.") This title is generally applied to the gods, but [Unrepresented Characters] ruhu *iru> "tlie supreme chief,'* is not an uncommon epithet in Assyrian for the king also. (See Tiglath Pilesar Cyl. passim.)
  • 5
    The title of Muda emga is difficult. In some of Nebuchadnezzar's in- scriptions emga is joined with a participle, mtitaninnu. See E. I. H. Ins. Col. 1, 1. 18; and Mus. Cyl. Col. 1, 1. 11; in others, mutaninnu stands alone. See Senk. Cyl. Col. 1, 1. 2. Emga is perhaps connected with the Assyrian emug (from [Unrepresented Characters] « to be deep " or " lofty " ?) which is an ordinary title of the gods; but for the derivation of muda I cannot at present offer a suggestion. Muda emga is probably nearly equivalent to the better known rubu emga, which first occurs on the Naramsin vase in an inscription of the Hamite period (though apparently written in a Semitic language), and which is afterwards found on almost all the bricks of Nabonidus as the special epithet of his father. On the bricks of this king found at Senkereh the title is written Rubbu maga, so that there can be little doubt of its representing the [Unrepresented Characters] which in Jer. xxxix, 3, is attached to the name of Nergal-sharezer, or Neriglissor, before he ascended the throne ; though I put no faith whatever in the translation ordinarily given of " chief of the Magi."
  • 2
    Sahkanasu, which is here used for the old Hamite term [Unrepresented Characters] (E. I. H. Ins. Col. 1, 1. 11), is the Shaphel Benoni of kanas, "to obey" or "submit," and thus signifies "he who makes submit," or "the subduer," being immediately cognate with the common Assyrian participle Vasaknis. However the old Hamite compound term [Unrepresented Characters] niay have been pronounced, there can be no doubt of its meaning ; [Unrepresented Characters] signified "a yoke " (nir in Semitic), and [Unrepresented Characters] was for a root which meant " to obey," so that prefixed to the name of a God, the epithet implied "submission to," the verb being used in a neuter sense ; while in other positions it was used actively, and meant " causing to submit to" or "subduing." In Assyrian [Unrepresented Characters] seems to have been pro- nounced ardu, the title, [Unrepresented Characters] (Khurs. 145, 3, 12, and 151, 10, 9), being replaced by [Unrepresented Characters] ardu Icanshu in Khurs.123,16. In Khurs. 71, 6, the equivalent is simply [Unrepresented Characters] "my lord, the king." "To pay homage" is also indifferently expressed by [Unrepresented Characters] [Unrepresented Characters] -« [Unrepresented Characters] the phonetic reading in both cases being epis arduti. The root apparently answers to [Unrepresented Characters] both in the neuter sense of " serving," and in the active sense of "making to serve " or " dominating." On the Senkereh cylinder, 1. 2, Nebuchadnezzar calls himself [Unrepresented Characters] asri kanshu, probably with the same meaning of " Lord Paramount " (asri, like sar, from [Unrepresented Characters] " to rule "). The words which follow shakkanshu I doubtfully read as la abkha, comparing the root [Unrepresented Characters]
  • 2
    The Gispa or Gissapa, [Unrepresented Characters] or [Unrepresented Characters]is, I think, the mace, or sceptre, which the king holds in his hand to indicate royalty. It is spoken of in almost every inscription as being given into the king's hand by his guardian divinity when he ascends the throne ; it was sometimes made of gold (Khurs. 151, 11, 11), and with it the king slays wild beasts. At one time I read the word Gishta ([Unrepresented Characters]) an{* understood "a bow;" but a bow of gold seems an impossibility.
  • 3
    Salmu and shega occur so frequently in Babylonian dates that they cannot possibly be the proper names of any particular month and day (compare E. I. H. Ins. Col. 8,1. 59). I compare Salmu with [Unrepresented Characters] " prosperity," and shega, which is Hamite, is translated in the Vocabulary by magaru, " honour " (compare niigir, " he who honours ") ; perhaps this is the true explanation of the Babylonian festival of the Xaxh, the five intercalary days of the year being regarded with especial honour.
  • 1
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • E. I. H. Ins. Col. 1,1. 33
    • Col. 7, l,28, &c, &c.
  • 2
    In E. I. H. Ins. Col. 4,1. 18, a monogram is used for this participle, which in other passages has the phonetic power of lakh. On the Birs Cylinder the term employed is zukkalu, which also occurs on Bel. Cyl. Col. 3, 1. 12