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Journal Article

Verses from the Sarva-Darśana-Sangraha, the Vishnu Purāna, and the Rāmāyana, Illustrating the Tenets of the Chārvākas, or Indian Materialists, with Some Remarks on Freedom of Speculation in Ancient India

J. Muir
The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland
Vol. 19 (1862), pp. 299-314
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Page Count: 16

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Topics: Vedas, Materialism, Buddhism, Vishnu, Nihilism, Ceremonies, Hindus, Deities, Men, Heresy
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Notes and References

This item contains 12 references.

  • 1
    Professor Wilsons "Sketch of the Religious Sects of the Hindus," above referred to; and for the words tridanda and tridandin, consult Boehtlingk and Roth's Lexicon, with the passages there cited from Manu, ix., 296, and xii., 10, 11, and other writers.
  • 2
    Mauu, v. 42
  • 3
    Manu, chap, iii., verses 122 to the end.
  • 4
    Dum vivimus, vivamus. " Let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die."— 1 Cor. xv., 32.
  • 1
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Compare "Original Sanskrit Texts," ii., 183
    • iii., 45.
    • The words jarbharl, lurpharī, occur in Rig Veda, x., 106, 6.
    • Boehtlingk and Roth's Lexicon, under these words, and Nirukta, xiii., 5.
  • 2
    This reference contains 7 citations:
    • Wilson's translation of the Rig Veda, vol. ii., Introd., p. xiii.
    • Rāmāyana, i., 13, 36 (Schlegel's edit.)
    • i., 13, 34 (Gorresio's edit.)
    • Mahābh., xiv., 2645
    • Vājasancyi Samhita, xxiii., 20 ff. and commentary
    • Śatapatha Brāhmana, pp. 990 ff.
    • Kātvayana's Sūtras, p. 973.
  • 3
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Manu, viii., 17
    • iv, 239 ff.
    • This passage is imitated, and expanded in the xiiith or Anusūusana Parva of the Mahāblihārata, verses 5,305-5,815. The words in Manu, iv., 244, tamas tarati dustaram, " he crosses the gloom diltieult to cross," are probably derived from the Atharva Veda, ix., 5, 1. Tirtrā tamām̄si bahudhā mahtānti ajo nākam ābamatām tritiyam: "Having crossed the dark abysses in many directions immense, let the unborn [or, the moving] one aseend the third heaven."
  • 1
    1 will not here enter on the question, of which I have not. studied both sides, as to the comparative antiquity of Schlcgel's and Gorrcsio's texts*,, but I will adduce from the speech of Vas'ishtha in the 110th section of Schlcgel's edition, as compared with the corresponding section of Gorrcsio's, what I conceive to be one decided argument in favour of the greater antiquity of the former text. Wc there read (in Schlcgel's edition), " There was then nothing but water, in which the earth was formed. From thence was produced Brahma, the wlf existcnf, together with the deities, lie. then becoming a boar, raised up the earth, ami created the whole world, with his sons, who were perfected inspirit. Brahma was produced from the ether," ftc. It is therefore Bioland, who here becomes a boar, and in that form raises up the earth,—an incarnation and an act which arc elsewhere, as in the Vishnu Furäna(pp. 27—32 of Wilson's translation), and in the Bhftgavata Purftno, i., 3, 7, and iii., 13, 18 IK, ascribed to Vishnu. To har- monize the account in the Rârnâyana with that in the Pu ranas (which is to all appearance of later origin), the author of the recension edited by Gorrcsio changes the words Brahma svagambhur daivatais saha, " Brahma, the sclf- cxiulcnt, with the gods," into Brahma svayamhhur Vishnnr avyaipdi, " Br.-ihiuft, the self existent, imperishable Vishnu ;" ami in a suhscepicnl line substitutes the words sacharāeharam avyayam, for saha putrair kritātmabhih, i.e., " he created the whole imperishable world, movedde and immoveable," iiiHlead of "he created the whole world, with his sons," &c. This last alteration was rendered necessary by the fact that sonn are ascribed by mythological tradition to Brahimi, but none to Vishnu. When, therefore, the name of Vishnu ivas introduced, it became necessary to strike out all reference to sons. These alterations are not found in Carey and Marshinan's edition, which hero agrees with Schlegels.
  • 1
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Alaun (ii. 11,)
    • Mahäbhärata, iii. 13,-l(j.l, sushka tarka
    • Manu, xii. 105
    • xii. 111
  • 1
    Professor Banerjea's Dialogues on the Hindu philosophy, where Sankara's refutation of this doctrine, the Vijīana-vāda, is quoted from his commentary on the Brahma Sūtras, ii., 2, 28.
  • 1
    "Original Sanskrit Texts," Part iii., p. 21G.
  • 2
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Orig. Sausk. Texts, iii., p. 201
    • Couip. Professor Baucijca's Dia- logues, pp. 78 if., 477 if.