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Dose Response Problems in Carcinogenesis

Kenny S. Crump
Biometrics
Vol. 35, No. 1, Perspectives in Biometry (Mar., 1979), pp. 157-167
DOI: 10.2307/2529942
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2529942
Page Count: 11
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Dose Response Problems in Carcinogenesis
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Abstract

The estimation of risks from exposure to carcinogens is an important problem from the viewpoint of protection of human health. It also poses some very difficult dose-response problems. Two dose-response models may fit experimental data about equally well and yet predict responses that differ by many orders of magnitude at low doses. Mechanisms of carcinogenesis are not sufficiently understood so that the shape of the dose-response curve at low doses can be satisfactorily predicted. Mathematical theories of carcinogenesis and statistical procedures can be of use with dose-response problems such as this and, in addition, can lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. In this paper, mathematical dose-response models of carcinogenesis are considered as well as various proposed dose-response procedures for estimating carcinogenic risks at low doses. Areas are suggested in which further work may be useful. These areas include experimental design problems, statistical procedures for use with time-to-occurrence data, and mathematical models that incorporate such biological features as pharmacokinetics of carcinogens, synergistic effects, DNA repair, susceptible subpopulations, and immune reactions.

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