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Dual Chain Migration: Post-1965 Filipino Immigration to the United States

John M. Liu, Paul M. Ong and Carolyn Rosenstein
The International Migration Review
Vol. 25, No. 3 (Autumn, 1991), pp. 487-513
DOI: 10.2307/2546757
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2546757
Page Count: 27
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Dual Chain Migration: Post-1965 Filipino Immigration to the United States
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Abstract

Since 1965, there have been two chains or patterns of emigration from the Philippines, the largest source of Asian immigration to the United States. This study analyzes the modes of entry used by each chain to determine their effects on the composition of subsequent Filipino immigration and on the strategies pursued by sponsors in both chains. It also examines the persistence of these chains over time and their consequences for Filipino community development in the United States. Data were obtained from the U.S. Census as well as from the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) annual reports and from INS microdata tapes from 1972 to 1985. The latter source permits the examination of relationships previously inaccessible in INS published material. Results indicate that 1) although each chain initially relied upon different modes of entry, succeeding cohorts in both chains have come to rely upon similar modes of admission because of the heavy emphasis on family reunification within the 1965 Immigration Act; 2) the basis of occupational immigration has changed from the third to the sixth preference with correspondingly greater use of the adjustment process; and 3) differences in the socioeconomic composition of each chain persist and are reflected in contemporary Filipino American community development.

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