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Identifying the Missing Steps of the Autotrophic 3-Hydroxypropionate CO₂ Fixation Cycle in Chloroflexus aurantiacus
Jan Zarzycki, Volker Brecht, Michael Müller and Georg Fuchs
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vol. 106, No. 50 (Dec. 15, 2009), pp. 21317-21322
Published by: National Academy of Sciences
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25593471
Page Count: 6
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The phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus uses a yet unsolved 3-hydroxypropionate cycle for autotrophic CO₂ fixation. It starts from acetyl-CoA, with acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA carboxylases acting as carboxylating enzymes. In a first cycle, (S)-malyl-CoA is formed from acetyl-CoA and 2 molecules of bicarbonate. (S)-Malyl-CoA cleavage releases the CO₂ fixation product glyoxylate and regenerates the starting molecule acetyl-CoA. Here we complete the missing steps devoted to glyoxylate assimilation. In a second cycle, glyoxylate is combined with propionyl-CoA, an intermediate of the first cycle, to form β-methylmalyl-CoA. This condensation is followed by dehydration to mesaconyl-C1-CoA. An unprecedented CoA transferase catalyzes the intramolecular transfer of the CoA moiety to the C4 carboxyl group of mesaconate. Mesaconyl-C4-CoA then is hydrated by an enoyl-CoA hydratase to (S)-citramalyl-CoA. (S)-Citramalyl-CoA is cleaved into acetyl-CoA and pyruvate by a tri-functional lyase, which previously cleaved (S)-malyl-CoA and formed β-methylmalyl-CoA. Thus, the enigmatic disproportionation of glyoxylate and propionyl-CoA into acetyl-CoA and pyruvate is solved in an elegant and economic way requiring only 3 additional enzymes. The whole bicyclic pathway results in pyruvate formation from 3 molecules of bicarbonate and involves 19 steps but only 13 enzymes. Elements of the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle may be used for the assimilation of small organic molecules. The 3-hydroxypropionate cycle is compared with the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle and other autotrophic pathways.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America © 2009 National Academy of Sciences