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Effects of Coaction, Expected Evaluation, and Goal Setting on Creativity and Productivity

Christina E. Shalley
The Academy of Management Journal
Vol. 38, No. 2 (Apr., 1995), pp. 483-503
Published by: Academy of Management
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/256689
Page Count: 21
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
Effects of Coaction, Expected Evaluation, and Goal Setting on Creativity and Productivity
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Abstract

Social and contextual factors have been theorized to significantly influence creative performance. This research examined effects of three factors on individual creativity and productivity: coaction, expected evaluation, and goal setting. Study 1 indicated that high levels of creativity occurred when individuals worked alone, and productivity was high when they worked alone under no expectation of evaluation. Study 2 found the highest creativity occurred when individuals had a creativity goal and worked alone under expected evaluation. Productivity was low when people worked alone or were assigned a creativity goal. Implications of these results for models of creativity and managing creativity at work are discussed.

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