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Allende y los campesinos: un análisis ecológico de las elecciones presidenciales de 1970 en Chile

BENNO GALJART
Boletín de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe
No. 16 (Junio de 1974), pp. 50-66
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25674887
Page Count: 17
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Allende y los campesinos: un análisis ecológico de las elecciones presidenciales de 1970 en Chile
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Abstract

Various more or less explicit Marxian theories are current about the direction of political behaviour to be expected of poor peasants in the Third World. In Chile, in 1970, peasants did get a chance to vote a government into power which had promised to take the country along the road to socialism. How did they vote? Using as units the more agrarian municipalities of Chile, an ecological analysis of the presidential elections was carried out. The possibility of a categorical error being admitted, the results seem to indicate that the peasants did not vote as a bloc, but according to their position in the productive process as independent owners, tenants, fixed or temporary wage earners. Each of the three presidential candidates appears to have found a particular niche in the Chilean countryside. For Allende, this niche is characterized by irrigated plantation type agriculture, in which use is made of temporary wage labour provided by minifundia. The results also indicate that the syndical polices of the Frei government may have benefitted the candidate of the government party, but that its land reform policy did not.

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