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Aḥmad Ibn Ḥanbal and the Qur'an / ‮ٲحمد بن حنبل والقرآن‬

Christopher Melchert and ‮کريستوفر‬ ‮ميلشرت‬
Journal of Qur'anic Studies
Vol. 6, No. 2 (2004), pp. 22-34
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25728144
Page Count: 13
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Aḥmad Ibn Ḥanbal and the Qur'an / ‮ٲحمد بن حنبل والقرآن‬
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Abstract

Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal (d. Baghdad, 241/855) was the central, defining figure of Sunnism in the earlier ninth century CE. He was a major collector and critic of ḥadīth, as well as stories of early renunciants, and his collected opinions would form the literary basis of the Ḥanbalī school of law. Men would assert as a badge of orthodoxy that their creed was Aḥmad's (e.g. Muzanī, Ṭabirī, Ashʿarī). He famously resisted the Inquisition of Maʾmūn and his successors, refusing to acknowledge that the Qur'an was created. Aḥmad's ideas about the Qur'an are found in collections of his answers to questions (masāʾil), in biographies (both of him personally and of his followers), and in his Musnad. They show a devotion above all to the liturgical use of the Qur'an; for example, how it should be recited aloud, how it should be integrated with the ritual prayer. He did not tend to infer the law directly from the Qur'an, but from ḥadīth, and put together his own version of the text (qirāʾa), although it is not preserved. (The report that he assembled a huge Qur'anic commentary is doubtful.) Therefore, it was not mainly as a record of Islamic law that Aḥmad defended the transcendence of the Qur'an but more directly as the basis of Islamic piety. ‮لقد کان ٲحمد بن حنبل (المتوفى ببغداد‬ 241 ‮هـ‬/ 855 ‮م) الشخصية التي حددت منهج ٲهل السنة في القرن التاسع الميلادي. کان ٲحمد جامعا وناقدا رئيسا للحديث وآثار السلف، وقد وضعت آراءه المجموعة في کتب المسائل‮ الٲساس النظري للمذهب الحنبلي الفقهي. ولقد جرى العلماء (کالمزني، الطبري والٲشعري) على الانتساب ٳلى عقيدة ٲحمد من ٲجل ٲن يبينوا مواقفهم العقدية. ولقد قاوم ٲحمد وبشدة محنة المٲمون ومن جاء بعده رافضا ٲن يقر بخلق القرآن. وتظهر آراء ٲحمد حول القرآن - والموجودة في کتب المسائل والتراجم والمسند - اخلاصه المحض لاستخدام القرآن في الجانب التعبدي، من باب المثال: کيف ينبغي قراءة القرآن جهرا، والقراءة في الصلاة۰ لم يکن من ديدن ٲحمد ٲن يستنبط الٲحکام من القرآن مباشرة، ولکن من الحديث. کما وضع قراءة خاصة به، على الرغم من ٲنها لم تحفظ. (ٳن الرواية التي تذکر ٲن ٲحمد وضع مصنفا ضخما في التفسير مشکوك فيها). بناء على ما تقدم يمکن القول بٲن ٲحمد عندما دافع عن عدم خلق القرآن لم يکن ذلك لکونه مصدرا فقهيا وٳنما لکونه مصدرا للزهد.‬

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