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Genetic immunization in the lung induces potent local and systemic immune responses
Kaimei Song, Diane L. Bolton, Robert L. Wilson, Jeremy V. Camp, Saran Bao, Joseph J. Mattapallil, Leonore A. Herzenberg, Leonard A. Herzenberg, Charla A. Andrews, Jerald C. Sadoff, Jaap Goudsmit, Maria Grazia Pau, Robert A. Seder, Pamela A. Kozlowski, Gary J. Nabel, Mario Roederer and Srinivas S. Rao
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vol. 107, No. 51 (December 21, 2010), pp. 22213-22218
Published by: National Academy of Sciences
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25757043
Page Count: 6
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Successful vaccination against respiratory infections requires elicitation of high levels of potent and durable humoral and cellular responses in the lower airways. To accomplish this goal, we used a fine aerosol that targets the entire lung surface through normal respiration to deliver replication-incompetent recombinant adenoviral vectors expressing gene products from several infectious pathogens. We show that this regimen induced remarkably high and stable lung T-cell responses in nonhuman primates and that it also generated systemic and respiratory tract humoral responses of both IgA and IgG isotypes. Moreover, strong immunogenicity was achieved even in animals with preexisting antiadenoviral immunity, overcoming a critical hurdle to the use of these vectors in humans, who commonly are immune to adenoviruses. The immunogenicity profile elicited with this regimen, which is distinct from either intramuscular or intranasal delivery, has highly desirable properties for protection against respiratory pathogens. We show that it can be used repeatedly to generate mucosal humoral, CD4, and CD8 T-cell responses and as such may be applicable to other mucosally transmitted pathogens such as HIV. Indeed, in a lethal challenge model, we show that aerosolized recombinant adenoviral immunization completely protects ferrets against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Thus, genetic immunization in the lung offers a powerful platform approach to generating protective immune responses against respiratory pathogens.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America © 2010 National Academy of Sciences