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Journal Article

Emishi, Ezo and Ainu: An Anthropological Perspective

Kazuro HANIHARA
Japan Review
No. 1 (1990), pp. 35-48
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25790886
Page Count: 14
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
Emishi, Ezo and Ainu: An Anthropological Perspective
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Abstract

Relationships among Emishi and Ezo of ancient through the medieval ages, and Ainu of recent through modern ages are discussed on the basis of statistical analysis of cranial measurements. The discussion is mainly focused on the long-disputed question of whether the ancient Emishi were derived from Ainu or from non-Ainu Japanese. The study was carried out by analyzing affinities between inhabitants in the Tohoku district and those in Hokkaido throughout the periods from the Neolithic Jomon to modern ages. The results show that both populations were derived from the Jomon populations and gradually separated from each other after the Yayoi age which was the final stage of the Neolithic in Japan. The separation seems to have proceeded for as long as about 1,000 years and, as a result, non-Ainu Japanese changed to show quite different characteristics from Ainu, both physically and culturally, by the 13th century. The causes of the separation may be attributed to the cultural and physical changes in non-Ainu Japanese which took place under the influence of migrants from the Asian Continent after the Yayoi age. It is quite likely, therefore, that Emishi in ancient times were populations in the early stage of separation. In other words, they were neither Ainu nor non-Ainu Japanese of modern types, so the question of whether Emishi were Ainu or non-Ainu Japanese becomes meaningless. 要旨:古代から中世にかけてェミシ、あるいはェゾと呼ばれた東日本の集団がアイヌであったか、アイヌ以外の和人であったかという問題は古くから議論されてきたが、未だに明確な解答がないばかりか、多くの議論は憶測の域を出ていない。しかしこの問題は北海道のアイヌを含めて、日本人集団の形成過程を知るために避けて通ることのできない関門である。なぜなら、彼らは日本人集団の小進化と無縁ではなかったはずだからである。私はこの疑問を解く糸口を発見するため、デ一夕はまだ不十分であるが日本人の頭骨計測値を統計学的に分析し、次のような繕果をえた。まず現代人については、頭骨の主要な計測値が近畿から関東、東北をへて北海遭(アイヌ)に至るきれぃな勾配を示す。また判別関数を計算すると、東北人は他地方の和人に比してアイヌと判別される率が極めて高ぃ。同時に、古代ではこの傾向がさらに強かったと推測される理由があろ。一方他の分析によると、アイヌと和人は弥生時代から中世に至る間に徐々に分離して来たことがほぼ確美と思われるので、両者の差は、少なくとも中世以前には現代ほど大きくはなかったと見てよい。つまり古代はこの分離が進行していた時期で、この時代のェミシまたはェヅが現代的な意味でのアイヌであったか和人であったかという設問は、本来成立しないと考えられる。もちろん、近世のエゾがアイヌを指していたという点は、多くの文献や人類学的研究から明らかである。換言すれば、古代から中世にかけてのエミシ(エゾ)と近世以降のェゾとは異なるということになる。今後さらに分析を進め、この問題に敢り組む必要があることはいうまでもない。

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