Access

You are not currently logged in.

Access your personal account or get JSTOR access through your library or other institution:

login

Log in to your personal account or through your institution.

The Empowerment Process: Integrating Theory and Practice

Jay A. Conger and Rabindra N. Kanungo
The Academy of Management Review
Vol. 13, No. 3 (Jul., 1988), pp. 471-482
Published by: Academy of Management
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/258093
Page Count: 12
  • Download PDF
  • Add to My Lists
  • Cite this Item
The Empowerment Process: Integrating Theory and Practice
We're having trouble loading this content. Download PDF instead.

Abstract

Despite increasing attention on the topic of empowerment, our understanding of the construct and its underlying processes remains limited. This article addresses these shortcomings by providing an analytical treatment of the construct and by integrating the diverse approaches to empowerment found in both the management and psychology literatures. In addition, the authors identify certain antecedent conditions of powerlessness and practices that have been hypothesized to empower subordinates.

Notes and References

This item contains 67 references.

References
  • Abramson, L. Y., Garber, J., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1980) Learned helplessness in humans: An attributional anal- ysis. In J. Garber & M. E. P. Seligman (Eds.), Human helplessness: Theory and applications (pp. 3-34). New York: Academic Press.
  • Bacharach, S. B., &Lawler, E. J. (1980) Power and politics in organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Bandura, A. (1977) Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
  • Bandura, A. (1986) Social foundations of thought and action: A social-cognitive view. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Beckhard, R. (1969) Organization development: Strategies and models. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  • Beer, M. (1980) Organizational change and development. Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear.
  • Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (1985) Leaders. New York: Harper & Row.
  • Blau, P. M. (1964) Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.
  • Block, P. (1987) The empowered manager. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Bucher, R. (1970) Social process and power in a medical school. In M. Zald (Ed.), Power in organizations (pp. 3-48). Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.
  • Burke, W. (1986) Leadership as empowering others. In S. Srivastra (Ed.), Executive power (pp. 51-77). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Conger, J. (1986) Empowering leadership. Working paper, McGill University, Montreal.
  • Crozier, M. (1964) The bureaucratic phenomenon. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Dahl, R. A. (1957) The concept of power. Behavioral Science, 2, 201-215.
  • Deal, T., & Kennedy, A. (1982) Corporate cultures. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  • Deci, E. L. (1975) Intrinsic motivation. New York: Plenum.
  • Emerson, R. M. (1962) Power-dependence relations. American Sociological Review, 27, 31-41.
  • Etzioni, A. (1961) A comparative analysis of complex organi- zations. New York: Fress Press.
  • French, J., Jr., & Raven, B. (1959) The basis of social power. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies in social power (pp. 150-167). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research.
  • Greiner, L. (1972) Evolution and revolution as organizations grow. Harvard Business Review, 50(4), 37-46.
  • Hackman, J. R. (1978) The design of work in the 1980's. Organizational Dynamics, 7(1), 3-17.
  • Hackman, J. R., & Lawler, E. E. (1971) Employee reactions to job characteristics. Journal of Applied Psychology Mono- graph, 55, 259-286.
  • Hackman, J. R., Oldham, G. R., Janson, R., & Purdy, K. (1975) New strategy for job enrichment. California Management Review, 17(4), 57-71.
  • Hills, F. S., & Mahoney, T. A. (1978) University budgets and organizational decision making. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23, 454-465.
  • Hinings, C. R., Hickson, D. J., Pennings, J. M., & Schneck, R. E. (1974) Conditions of intra-organizational power. Administrative Science Quarterly, 14, 378-397.
  • Homans, A. (1974) Social behavior: Its elementary forms. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
  • House, R. J. (1977) A 1976 theory of charismatic leadership. In J. G. Hunt & L. L. Larson (Eds.), Leadership: The cutting edge (pp. 189-207). Carbondale: Southern Illinois Univer- sity Press.
  • House, R. J. (in press) Power and personality in complex organizations. In L. L. Cummings & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior: An annual review of critical essays and reviews. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  • Kanter, R. M. (1979) Power failure in management circuits. Harvard Business Review, 57(4), 65-75.
  • Kanter, R. M. (1983) The change masters. New York: Simon & Schuster.
  • Kanungo, R. N. (1987) Reward management: A new look. In S. L. Dolan & R. S. Schuler (Eds.), Canadian readings in personnel and human resource managements (pp. 261- 275). St. Paul: West.
  • Kidder, T. (1981) Soul of a new machine. Boston: Little, Brown.
  • Kotter, J. P. (1977) Power, dependence, and effective man- agement. Harvard Business Review, 55(4), 125-136.
  • Kotter, J. P. (1979) Power in management. New York: Ama- com.
  • Lawler, E. E., I (1971) Pay and organizational effectiveness: A psychological view. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Lawler, E. E., III (1973) Motivation in work organizations. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
  • Lawler, E. E., II (1977) Reward systems. In J. R. Hackman & L. J. Suttle (Eds.), Improving life at work: Behavioral sci- ence approaches to organizational change (pp. 163-226). Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear.
  • Likert, R. (1961) New patterns of management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Likert, R. (1967) The human organization. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Lodahl, J., & Gordon, G. (1972) The structure of scientific fields and the functioning of university graduate departments. American Sociological Review, 37, 57-72.
  • Maslow, A. H. (1954) Motivation and personality. New York: Harper.
  • McClelland, D. C. (1975) Power: The inner experience. New York: Irvington Press.
  • McGregor, D. (1960) The human side of enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Mowday, R. (1978) The exercise of upward influence in organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23, 137- 156.
  • Nadler, D. (1980) Concepts for the management of organiza- tional change. New York: Organizational Research & Consulting, Inc.
  • Neilsen, E. (1986) Empowerment strategies: Balancing au- thority and responsibility. In S. Srivastra (Ed.), Executive power (pp. 78-110). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Oldham, G. R. (1976) The motivational strategies used by supervisors' relationships to effectiveness indicators. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 15, 66-86.
  • Parsons, T., & Smelser, N. J. (1956) Economy and society. New York: Free Press.
  • Pettigrew, A. M. (1972) Information control as a power re- source. Sociology, 6, 187-204.
  • Pfeffer, J. (1981) Power in organizations. Marshfield, MA: Pitman.
  • Pfeffer, J. (1982) Organizations and organizational theory. Marshfield, MA: Pitman.
  • Plott, C. R., & Levine, M. E. (1978) A model of agenda influ- ence on committee decisions. American Economic Review, 68, 146-160.
  • Rothbaum, F. M., Weisz, J. R., & Snyder, S. S. (1982) Chang- ing the world and changing self: A two process model of perceived control. Journal of Personality and Social Psy- chology, 42, 5-37.
  • Rotter, J. B. (1966) Generalized expectancies for internal ver- sus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Mono- graphs, 80 (1, Whole No. 609).
  • Salancik, G. R., & Pfeffer, J. (1974) The bases and use of power in organizational decision making: The case of a university. Administrative Science Quarterly, 19, 453-473.
  • Salancik, G. R., & Pfeffer, J. (1977) Who gets power-and how they hold on to it: A strategic-contingency model of power. Organizational Dynamics, 5(3), 3-21.
  • Selznick, P. (1949) TVA and the grass roots. Berkeley: Univer- sity of Califomia Press.
  • Sims, H. P. (1977) The leader as a manager of reinforcement contingencies. In J. G. Hunt & L. L. Larson (Eds.), Leader- ship: The cutting edge (pp. 121-137). Carbondale: South- ern Illinois University Press.
  • Strauss, G. (1977) Managerial practices. In I. R. Hackman & L. I. Suttle (Eds.), Improving life at work: Behavioral sci- ence approaches to organizational change (pp. 297-363). Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear.
  • Szilagyi, A. D. (1980) Causal inferences between leader re- ward behavior and subordinate goal attainment, ab- senteeism, and work satisfaction. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 53, 195-204.
  • Tannenbaum, A. S. (1968) Control in organizations. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Thibault, J. W., & Kelley, H. H. (1959) The social psychology of groups. New York: Wiley.
  • Tichy, N. M., & Devanna, M. A. (1986) The transformational leader. New York: Wiley.
  • Vroom, V. H. (1964) Work and motivation. New York: Wiley.
  • Weiner, B. (1985) An attributional theory of achievement mo- tivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 92, 548-573.
  • Whetten, D. A., & Cameron, K. S. (1984) Developing man- agement skills. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
  • White, R. W. (1959) Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66, 297-333.