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ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺠﻤﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻰ / al-Dalāla al-lughawiyya: Meaning in Single Words, and Contextual Variation

ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺣﺴﺎﻥ and TAMMAM HASSAN
Journal of Qur'anic Studies
Vol. 11, No. 2 (2009), pp. 175-160
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25831157
Page Count: 16
Topics: Jails
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺠﻤﻰ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻰ / al-Dalāla al-lughawiyya: Meaning in Single Words, and Contextual Variation
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Abstract

ﻳﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻛﻠﻰ ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻈﻢ ﻓﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻓﻞ٬ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻳﻨﺘﻔﻊ ﺑﻌﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ. ﻭﻣﻦ ﺛﻢ ﻳﻨﺎﻗﺶ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻧﻘﺪﻱ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻃﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺠﻢ ﻻ ﻳﻤﺜﻞ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ٬ ﺑﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻲ ﺭﺃﻳﻬﻢ ﺳﺠﻞ ﻟﻤﻔﺮﺩﺍﺗﻬﺎ٬ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﺸﺄ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﻀﺒﻮﻁ ﺫﻭ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻩ ﻋﻦ ﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ. ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻳﻘﺮﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﻴﻦ ﻫﻢ ﺃﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻻﺣﻈﻮﺍ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺠﻢ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺗﻴﻦ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﻠﺤﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻻﺗﺼﻠﺤﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻀﻢ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﻫﻤﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ٬ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺒﺮ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﻴﻮﻥ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻬﻢ: ﺍﺳﻨﺪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻮ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺴﻨﺪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ . This atricle starts from the basic premise that language is a complete system which is formed of mutually supporting subsidiary structures. On this premise, it critically discusses the view prevalent among linguists that the lexicon of a language does not in itself represent a language system; rather it is a record of individual words, without organised from that might be said to render it a precise discipline distinguished by its own distinctive rules. The study points out that it was these very same linguists who observed the existence of semantic fields in which individual words can be classed, and who claim that any given two words may form two different semantic fields which either may or may not be suitable for combination in a given collocation. This has been expressed by scholars of ʿilm al-bayān as the principle that a lexical item can be predicated to something that is either contextually appropriate or inappropriate to it.

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