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Avoiding Ecological Surprise: Lessons from Long-Standing Communities

Andrew King
The Academy of Management Review
Vol. 20, No. 4 (Oct., 1995), pp. 961-985
Published by: Academy of Management
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/258962
Page Count: 25
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Avoiding Ecological Surprise: Lessons from Long-Standing Communities
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Abstract

Increasingly ecologists have recognized the importance of sudden and unexpected changes in the natural environment-often called "surprises." Organizational scholars have not developed a theory of how to avoid ecological surprise. This article suggests one way to develop such a theory. Using ecology, systems analysis, and a historical comparison of four communities, the article concludes that organizing and managing natural resources in part as community property can play a central role in avoiding surprises.

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