Access

You are not currently logged in.

Access your personal account or get JSTOR access through your library or other institution:

login

Log in to your personal account or through your institution.

Corporate Social Performance Revisited

Donna J. Wood
The Academy of Management Review
Vol. 16, No. 4 (Oct., 1991), pp. 691-718
Published by: Academy of Management
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/258977
Page Count: 28
  • Download PDF
  • Cite this Item
Corporate Social Performance Revisited
We're having trouble loading this content. Download PDF instead.

Abstract

This article defines corporate social performance (CSP) and reformulates the CSP model to build a coherent, integrative framework for business and society research. Principles of social responsibility are framed at the institutional, organizational, and individual levels; processes of social responsiveness are shown to be environmental assessment, stakeholder management, and issues management; and outcomes of CSP are posed as social impacts, programs, and policies. Rethinking CSP in this manner points to vital research questions that have not yet been addressed.

Notes and References

This item contains 108 references.

References
  • Ackerman, R. W.1975. The social challenge to business. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Ackerman, R. W., & Bauer, R. A. 1976. Corporate social responsiveness. Reston, VA: Reston Publishing.
  • Aldag, R. J., & Jackson, D. W., Jr. 1975. A managerial framework for social decision making. MSU Business Topics, Spring: 33-40.
  • Andrews, P. N. 1987. Public affairs offices in large U.S. corporations: Evaluation, structure, and development. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Boston University.
  • Ansoff, I.1965. Corporate strategy. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Aram, J. D.1989. The paradox of interdependent relations in the field of social issues in man- agement. Academy of Management Review, 14: 266-283.
  • Aupperle, K. E., Carroll, A. B., & Hatfield, J. D. 1985. An empirical investigation of the rela- tionship between corporate social responsibility and profitability. Academy of Manage- ment Journal, 28: 446-463.
  • Austrom, D. R., & Lad, L. J. 1986. Problem-solving networks: Towards a synthesis of innovative approaches to social issues management. Academy of Management Best Papers Proceed- ings:311-315.
  • Berthoin Antal, A. 1990. Corporate social performance: Rediscovering actors and their orga- nizational contexts. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Technical University, Berlin.
  • Bigelow, B., Fahey, L., & Mahon, J. F. 1990. Political strategy and issues evolution: Toward a framework for analysis and action. International Association for Business and Society Proceedings 1990: 156-167.
  • Blake, D. H., Frederick, W. C., & Myers, M. S. 1976. Social auditing: Evaluating the impact of corporate programs. New York: Praeger.
  • Boal, K. B., & Peery, N. 1985. The cognitive structure of corporate social responsibility. Journal of Management, 11(3): 71-82.
  • Bourgeois, L. J., III. 1980. Strategy and environment: A conceptual integration. Academy of Management Review, 5: 25-39.
  • Bowen, H. R.1953. Social responsibilities of the businessman. New York: Harper.
  • Brenner, S. N.1990. Influences on corporate ethics programs. International Association for Business and Society Proceedings 1990: 53-58.
  • Brown, J. K.1979. This business of issues: Coping with the company's environments. New York: Conference Board.
  • Buchholz, R. A.1982. Business environment and public policy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- Hall.
  • Burke, L., Logsdon, J. M., Mitchell, W., Reiner, M., & Vogel, D. 1986. Corporate community involvement in the San Francisco Bay area. California Management Review, 28(3): 133- 141.
  • Carroll, A. B.1979. A three-dimensional conceptual model of corporate social performance. Academy of Management Review, 4: 497-505.
  • Clarkson, M. B. E.1988. Corporate social performance in Canada, 1976-86. In L. E. Preston (Ed.), Research in corporate social performance and policy, vol. 10: 241-265. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  • Cochran, P. L., & Wood, R. A. 1984. Corporate social responsibility and financial perfor- mance. Academy of Management Journal, 27: 42-56.
  • Collins, D. 1990. The relation of gainsharing to work climate and company social perfor- mance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.
  • Davis, K.1973. The case for and against business assumption of social responsibilities. Acad- emy of Management Journal, 16: 312-322.
  • Dierkes, M., & Berthoin Antal, A. 1986. Whither corporate social reporting: Is it time to legislate? California Management Review, 28(3): 106-121.
  • Donaldson, T.1989, The ethics of international business. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Eberstadt, N.1977. What history tells us about corporate responsibilities. In A. B. Carroll (Ed.), Managing corporate social responsibility17-22. Boston: Little, Brown.
  • Elbing, A. O., & Elbing, C. J. 1964. The value issue in business. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Epstein, E. M.1969. The corporation in American politics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Epstein, E. M.1987. The corporate social policy process: Beyond business ethics, corporate social responsibility, and corporate social responsiveness. California Management Re- view, 29(3): 99-114.
  • Etzioni, A.1988. The moral dimension: Toward a new economics. New York: Free Press.
  • Fahey, L., & Narayanan, V. K. 1986. Macroenvironmental analysis for strategic manage- ment. St. Paul, MN: West.
  • Fleming, J. E.1981. Public issues scanning. In L. E. Preston (Ed.), Research in corporate social performance and policy, vol. 3: 154-174. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  • Frederick, W. C.1978. From CSRI to CSR2: The maturing of business-and-society thought. Working paper, University of Pittsburgh, Graduate School of Business.
  • Frederick, W. C.1986. Theories of corporate social performance: Much done, more to do. Working paper, University of Pittsburgh, Graduate School of Business.
  • Frederick, W. C., & Weber, J. 1987. The values of corporate managers and their critics: An empirical description and normative implications. In W. C. Frederick (Ed.), Research in corporate social performance and policy, vol. 9: 131-152. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  • Freeman, R. E.1984. Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Boston: Pitman/ Ballinger (Harper Collins).
  • Freeman, R. E.1989. Let's disband the Academy of Management. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Washington, DC.
  • Freeman, R. E., & Gilbert, D. R., Jr. 1988. Corporate strategy and the search for ethics. En- glewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Getz, K. A.1990. An agency approach to ozone depletion. Paper presented at the Issues Management Conference, Pennsylvania State University, University Park.
  • Gilbert, D. R., Jr.1989. Business ethics and three genres of stakeholder research. Paper pre- sented at the 3rd Conference on Quality of Life, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, VA.
  • Gray, B.1989. Collaborating: Finding common ground for multiparty problems. San Fran- cisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Hardin, G.1968. The tragedy of the commons. Science, 162: 1243-1248.
  • Harvey, B., Smith, S., & Wilkinson, B. 1984. Managers and corporate social policy: Private solutions to public problems? London: Macmillan Press Ltd.
  • Hocevar, S. P., & Bhambri, A. 1989. Corporate social performance: A model of assessment criteria. In J. E. Post (Ed.), Research in corporate social performance and policy, vol. 11: 1-20. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  • Jones, T. M.1980. Corporate social responsibility revisited, redefined. California Management Review, 22(3): 59-67.
  • Jones, T. M.1983. An integrating framework for research in business and society: A step toward the elusive paradigm? Academy of Management Review, 8: 559-564.
  • Kahn, W. A.1990. Toward an agenda for business ethics research. Academy of Management Review, 15: 311-327.
  • Keim, G. D.1978. Corporate social responsibility: An assessment of the enlightened self- interest model. Academy of Management Review, 3: 32-39.
  • Kelley, P. C., & Agle, B. R. 1990. The past as a predictor of the future: Political action commit- tees' solicitation techniques. International Association for Business and Society Proceed- ings 1990:353-362.
  • Lad, L. J. 1985. Policy-making between business and government. Unpublished doctoral dis- sertation, Boston University.
  • Lenway, S. A., & Rehbein, K. in press. Leaders, followers, and free riders: An empirical test of the variation of corporate political involvement. Academy of Management Journal.
  • Logsdon, J. M. In press. Collaboration to regulate L.IU.S.T.: Leaking underground storage tanks in Silicon Valley. Journal of Business Research.
  • Mahon, J. F.1983. Corporate political strategies: An empirical study of chemical firm responses to Superfund legislation. In L. E. Preston (Ed.), Research in corporate social performance and policy, vol. 5: 143-182. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  • Mahon, J. F., & Kelley, P. C. 1988. The politics of toxic waste: Multinational corporations as facilitators of transnational policy. In L. E. Preston (Ed.), Research in corporate social performance and policy. vol. 10: 59-86. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  • Maitland, I.1983. House divided: Business lobbying and the 1981 budget. In L. E. Preston (Ed.), Research in corporate social performance and policy, vol. 5: 1-26. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  • Mallott, M. J.1990. Mapping stakeholder patterns. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, San Francisco.
  • Marcus, A. A., Kaufman, A. M., & Beam, D. R. (Eds.). 1987. Business strategy and public policy: Perspectives from industry and academia. New York: Quorum Books.
  • Massie, R. K., Jr.1989. Policy formulation and moral deliberation: A study of the response of eight institutional investors to the debate over South African disinvestment. Academy of Management Best Papers Proceedings318-322.
  • Mathews, M. C.1987. Codes of ethics: Organizational behavior and misbehavior. In W. C. Frederick (Ed.), Research in corporate social performance and policy, vol. 9: 107-130. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  • Meznar, M., Chrisman, J., & Carroll, A. B. 1990. Social responsibility and strategic manage- ment: Toward an enterprise strategy classification. Academy of Management Best Papers Proceedings332-336.
  • Miles, R. A.1987. Managing the corporate social environment. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- Hall.
  • Mitnick, B. M.1980. The political economy of regulation: Creating, designing, and removing regulatory forms. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Mitnick, B. M.1981. The strategic uses of regulation-and deregulation. Business Horizons, 24(2): 71-83.
  • Mitnick, B. M.1987. A typology of boundary agent roles. Working paper, University of Pitts- burgh, Katz Graduate School of Business.
  • Molitor, G. T.1980. Environmental forecasting: Public policy forecasting. In L. E. Preston (Ed.),Business environment/public policy: 1979 conference papers139-151. St. Louis, MO: AACSB.
  • Morris, S. A., Rehbein, K. A., Hosseini, J. C., & Armacost, R. L. 1990. Building a current profile of socially responsive firms. International Association for Business and Society Proceed- ings 1990:297-303.
  • Newgren, K. E., Rasher, A. A., LaRoe, M. E., & Szabo, M. R. 1985. Environmental assessment and corporate performance: A longitudinal analysis using a market-determined perfor- mance measure. In L. E. Preston (Ed.), Research in corporate social performance and policy, vol. 7: 153-164. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  • Olson, M., Jr.1965. The logic of collective action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Pasquero, J.1989. A cross-country comparison of national and corporate public issue agendas: Exploring the convergence hypothesis. Academy of Management Best Papers Proceed- ings:323-327.
  • Pasquero, J.1990. Trends in international corporate philanthropy. International Association for Business and Society Proceedings 1990: 252-261.
  • Paul, K., & Duffy, S. 1988. Corporate responses to the call for South African withdrawal. In L. E. Preston (Ed.), Research in corporate social performance and policy, vol. 10: 211-240. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  • Post, J. E.1978. Corporate behavior and social change. Reston, VA: Reston Publishing.
  • Post, J. E., Murray, E. A., Jr., Dickie, R. B., & Mahon, J. F. 1983. The public affairs function. California Management Review, 36(1): 135-150.
  • Preston, L. E. (Ed.). 1978. Research in corporate social performance and policy, vol. 1. Green- wich, CT: JAI Press.
  • Preston, L. E.1986. Business and public policy. Journal of Management, 12(2): 261-275.
  • Preston, L. E., & Post, J. E. 1975. Private management and public policy: The principle of public responsibility. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Randall, D. M.1989. An eclipse of justice: Policies regulating reproductive health in the workplace. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Washington, DC.
  • Reed, L., Getz, K., Collins, D., Oberman, W., & Toy, R. 1990. Theoretical models and empirical results: A review and synthesis of JAI volumes 1 - 10. In L. E. Preston (Ed.), Corporation and society research: Studies in theory and measurement27-62. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  • Rose, S.1970. The economics of environmental quality. Fortune, 81(2): 120-123, 184-186.
  • Sethi, S. P.1979. A conceptual framework for environmental analysis of social issues and evaluation of business response patterns. Academy of Management Review, 4: 63-74.
  • Siegfried, J. J., McElroy, K. M., & Biernot-Fawkes, D. 1983. The management of corporate contributions. In L. E. Preston (Ed.), Research in corporate social performance and policy, vol. 5: 87-102. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  • Srivastava, P.1987. Bhopal: Anatomy of a crisis. New York: Ballinger (Harper Collins).
  • Starik, M., & Carroll, A. B. 1990. In search of beneficence: Reflections on the connections between firm social and financial performance. International Association for Business and Society Proceedings 1990:1-15.
  • Steiner, G. A.1979. Business and its changing environment. Los Angeles: UCLA School of Management.
  • Stevens, J. M., Wartick, S. L., & Bagby, J. W. 1986. Business-government relations: An empir- ical perspective on resource dependence and strategy issues. Academy of Management Best Papers Proceedings:326-330.
  • Strand, R.1983. A systems paradigm of organizational adaptations to the social environment. Academy of Management Review, 8: 90-96.
  • Thompson, J. K., Wartick, S. L., & Smith, H. L. In press. Integrating corporate social perfor- mance and stakeholder management: Implications for a research agenda in small busi- ness. In J. E. Post (Ed.), Research in corporate social performance and policy, vol. 12. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  • Toyne, B.1990. Contributions of international business to the international dimension of busi- ness and society debate. International Association for Business and Society Proceedings 1990: 447-453.
  • Tuzzolino, F., & Armandi, B. R. 1981. A need hierarchy for assessing corporate social respon- sibility. Academy of Management Review, 6: 21-28.
  • Ullman, A.1985. Data in search of a theory: A critical examination of the relationships among social performance, social disclosure, and economic performance. Academy of Manage- ment Review, 10: 540-577.
  • Useem, M.1988. Market and institutional factors in corporate contributions. California Man- agement Review, 30(2): 77-88.
  • Vogel, D.1978. Lobbying the corporation: Citizen challenges to business authority. New York: Basic Books.
  • Votaw, D.1973. Genius becomes rare. In D. Votaw & S. P. Sethi (Eds.), The corporate di- lemma11-45. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Waddock, S. A.1986. Public-private partnership as social product and process. In J. E. Post (Ed.), Research in corporate social performance and policy, vol. 8: 273-300. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  • Walton, C. C.1988. The moral manager. New York: Ballinger (Harper Collins).
  • Wartick, S. L.1988. How issues management contributes to corporate performance. Business Forum, 13(2): 16-22.
  • Wartick, S. L., & Cochran, P. L. 1985. The evolution of the corporate social performance model. Academy of Management Review, 10: 758-769-.
  • Wartick, S. L., & Rude, R. E. 1986. Issues management: Corporate fad or corporate function? California Management Review, 29(1): 121-140.
  • Weber, J.1989. Managers' moral reasoning: An exploratory look at managers' responses to three moral dilemmas. Academy of Management Best Papers Proceedings:333-337.
  • Weidenbaum, M. L.1981. Business, government, and the public. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Pren- tice-Hall.
  • Wilson, I. H.1977. Socio-political forecasting: A new dimension to strategic planning. In A. B. Carroll (Ed.), Managing corporate social responsibility159-169. Boston: Little, Brown.
  • Windsor, D., & Preston, L. E. 1988. Corporate governance and social performance in the multinational corporation. In L. E. Preston (Ed.), Research in corporate social perfor- mance and policy, vol. 10: 45-58. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  • Wokutch, R. E.1982. Ethical investment policies and activities of Catholic religious orders. In L. E. Preston (Ed.), Research in corporate social performance and policy, vol. 4: 157-188. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  • Wood, D. J.1986. Strategic uses of public policy: Business and government in the Progressive era. Boston: Pitman/Ballinger (Harper Collins).
  • Wood, D. J.1990. Business and society. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman (Harper Collins).
  • Wood, D. J. In press-a. Social issues in management: Theory and research in corporate social performance. Journal of Management.
  • Wood, D. J. In press-b. Toward improving corporate social performance. Business Horizons.
  • Zenisek, T. J.1979. Corporate social responsibility: A conceptualization based on organiza- tional literature. Academy of Management Review, 4: 359-368.