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Bird-Pollination of Three Durio Species (Bombacaceae) in a Tropical Rainforest in Sarawak, Malaysia

Takakazu Yumoto
American Journal of Botany
Vol. 87, No. 8 (Aug., 2000), pp. 1181-1188
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2656655
Page Count: 8
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Bird-Pollination of Three Durio Species (Bombacaceae) in a Tropical Rainforest in Sarawak, Malaysia
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Abstract

Pollination ecology of three Durio species, D. grandiflorus, D. oblongus, and D. kutejensis (Bombacaceae), was studied in a lowland dipterocarp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia, during a peak flowering period when at least 305 species of plants bloomed in 1996. Durio has been reported to be pollinated by bats in Peninsular Malaysia. However, my observations of flower visitors and pollination experiments indicated that two species, D. grandiflorus and D. oblongus, were pollinated by spiderhunters (Nectariniidae) and that the other species, D. kutejensis, was pollinated by giant honey bees and bats as well as birds. Hand-pollination experiments showed that all three species were obligate outbreeders. A resource limitation in fruit production was suggested. The former two species were visited only by spiderhunters, and the bagged flowers that were opened for animal visitors only at night bore no fruit, while those that were opened only during the day bore fruits, at comparable fruiting ratios to open pollination. Durio kutejensis was observed to be visited by giant honey bees, birds, and bats at different times of day, and three series of bagged experiments that exposed the flowers to animal visitors at different times of day bore fruits at a comparable ratio to open-pollination.

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