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Studies in Neotropical Paleobotany. XIII. An Oligo-Miocene Palynoflora from Simojovel (Chiapas, Mexico)

Alan Graham
American Journal of Botany
Vol. 86, No. 1 (Jan., 1999), pp. 17-31
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2656951
Page Count: 15
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
Studies in Neotropical Paleobotany. XIII. An Oligo-Miocene Palynoflora from Simojovel (Chiapas, Mexico)
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Abstract

A plant microfossil assemblage of 24 identified and five unknown pollen and spore types is reported from the early Mioccne La Quinta Formation near Simojovel, Chiapas, Mexico. The taxa group into seven paleocommunities representing versions of the modern mangroves (Pelliciera, Rhizophora), swamp and lowland riparian forest (Ceratopteris. Crudia, Pachira), tropical rain forest (Selaginella, cf. Antrophyum, Pteris, Sphaeropteris/Trichipteris, cf. Aguiaria, Crudia, Guarea, Pachira), lower montane rain forest (Alfaroa/Oreomunnea, possibly Eugenia), evergreen cloud forest [Picea, Pinus, Podocarpus, Ericaceae (possibly Cavendishia/Vaccinium)], evergreen seasonal forest (Hymenaea, Ilex, possibly Eugenia), and tropical deciduous forest (Cedrela). Elements of arid and high-elevation habitats were absent or few, and northern temperate elements (Picea, Pinus?) were few or rare. Paleoelevations are estimated at 1000-1200 m (present average 2000 m, maximum 3004 m), MAT (mean annual temperature) at least as warm as the present 24⚬C, and annual rainfall near the present ∼2500 mm but more evenly distributed. The La Quinta (Simojovel) and other Tertiary floras from the region reflect a trend toward higher altitudes, more seasonal rainfall, cooling tempertures, increased introduction of cool-temperate elements from the north after ∼15 Ma (million years), and increased introduction of tropical elements from the south after completion of the isthmian land bridge ∼3.5 Ma ago.

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