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Phylogenetics of Hyacinthaceae Based on Plastid DNA Sequences

Martin Pfosser and Franz Speta
Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden
Vol. 86, No. 4 (Autumn, 1999), pp. 852-875
DOI: 10.2307/2666172
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2666172
Page Count: 24
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Phylogenetics of Hyacinthaceae Based on Plastid DNA Sequences
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Abstract

Hyacinthaceae presently consist of approximately 70 genera and 1000 species. To investigate the monophyly of the family and the generic relationships, we sequenced the trnL intron and the trnL-trnF intergenic spacer region of chloroplast DNA for 105 taxa in Hyacinthaceae and 18 species of related families. By testing different outgroup compositions, we provide evidence for the monophyly of the family if the North American genera Camassia and Chlorogalum, which are more closely related to Agave and Hosta, are excluded from Hyacinthaceae sensu Dahlgren. Several generic implications can be deduced from the analysis, the most prominent one of which is the polyphyletic origin of the Linnaean genera Scilla, Ornithogalum, and Hyacinthus. Especially members of the genera Scilla and Hyacinthus are extensively intermixed with each other. According to the DNA sequence data, the only true Scilla species are found in the Mediterranean region and appear as a monophyletic clade. A tetrapartition of the family into (1) the monotypic subfamily Oziroeoideae Speta, accommodating the South American Hyacinthaceae; (2) the subfamily Urgineoideae Speta, housing relatives of the squills; (3) the subfamily Ornithogaloideae Speta, including the tribes Ornithogaleae Rouy and Dipeadieae Rouy; and (4) the largest and most advanced subfamily, Hyacinthoideae Link, consisting of the tribe Massonieae Baker (including species from Africa south of the Sahara and from India) and the Mediterranean/Asian tribe Hyacintheae Dumort., is proposed. Previously included in Hyacinthaceae sensu Dahlgren, the North American genera Chlorogalum and Camassia show affinities to Agavaceae and Funkiaceae and appear as a distinct clade together with Anthericaceae. Furthermore, the occurrence of taxa from southern Africa at basal positions in all subfamilies points to the origin of evolution of the Hyacinthaceae in this region.

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