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Journal Article

Ignoring a Covariate: An Example of Simpson's Paradox

David R. Appleton, Joyce M. French and Mark P. J. Vanderpump
The American Statistician
Vol. 50, No. 4 (Nov., 1996), pp. 340-341
DOI: 10.2307/2684931
Stable URL:
Page Count: 2

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Topics: Cigarette smoking, Age groups, Paradoxes
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The possibility that the apparent direction of an association will be reversed when covariates are taken into account is well known, but many examples of this effect are rather contrived. A real example from an epidemiological survey is presented.

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