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Ignoring a Covariate: An Example of Simpson's Paradox

David R. Appleton, Joyce M. French and Mark P. J. Vanderpump
The American Statistician
Vol. 50, No. 4 (Nov., 1996), pp. 340-341
DOI: 10.2307/2684931
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2684931
Page Count: 2
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Abstract

The possibility that the apparent direction of an association will be reversed when covariates are taken into account is well known, but many examples of this effect are rather contrived. A real example from an epidemiological survey is presented.

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