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Achievement Motivation, Test Anxiety, and Underachievement in the Elementary School
Richard H. Simons and John J. Bibb Jr.
The Journal of Educational Research
Vol. 67, No. 8 (Apr., 1974), pp. 366-369
Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd.
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/27536630
Page Count: 4
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Test anxiety (MAF) and the need for achievement (MS) were assessed in forty-one male and twenty-seven female underachievers in the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. In addition a resultant achievement motivation index (RAM) was formed by combining the previous variables into hope of success (MS > MAF) and fear of failure (MAF > MS) categories. Chi-square analysis revealed that test anxiety is a significant factor in underachieving males (p < .05) but not females (p < .10). No significant differences were found for either sex with the need to achieve; however, the RAM index yielded significant differences for both sexes. Hope of success was significantly associated with high or superior academic achievement while fear of failure was significantly associated with underachievement. Overall chi-square analysis indicated a significant (p < .05) sex difference in underachievement; there were more male underachievers than females.
The Journal of Educational Research © 1974 Taylor & Francis, Ltd.