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Morale is the relationship of a group to a given end. In the present situation it is likely that the specific factors affecting morale are not the same in any two countries. While it is difficult to find measurable indices of civilian morale, such indices may be selected and used. The Ministry of Information in Britain has used the public-opinion survey for measuring morale as well as the more detailed methods used by Gallup. A study made by Paul Lazarsfeld and associates suggests the possibility of using the panel method as a technique of inquiry for ascertaining morale under war conditions.
American Journal of Sociology © 1941 The University of Chicago Press