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Carry-over Effects in a Pacific Seabird: Stable Isotope Evidence That Pre-Breeding Diet Quality Influences Reproductive Success
Marjorie C. Sorensen, J. Mark Hipfner, T. Kurt Kyser and D. Ryan Norris
Journal of Animal Ecology
Vol. 78, No. 2 (Mar., 2009), pp. 460-467
Published by: British Ecological Society
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/27696385
Page Count: 8
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1. Understanding the interactions between different periods of the annual cycle in migratory animals has been constrained by our inability to track individuals across seasos. In seabirds, virtually nothing is known about how diet quality during the non-breeding period, away from the breeding grounds, might influence subsequent reproductive success. 2. We used stable nitrogen (δ13N) and carbon (δ13C) isotopes to evaluate the effects of non-breeding diet quality on the timing of breeding and egg size in a population of Cassin's auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) breeding on Triangle Island, British Columbia. Adult feathers are grown during two different periods of the annual cycle, which allowed us to estimate diet quality from the previous fall (October—November) and pre-breeding (February—March) period. 3. We found that the estimated proportion of energetically superior copepods (Neocalanus spp.) in the pre-breeding diet tended to be higher in females that bred earlier and laid larger eggs, whereas energetically poor juvenile rockfish (Sebastes spp.) were dominant in the pre-breeding diets of females that bred later and laid smaller eggs. We detected no effect of fall diet quality on breeding date or egg size, and no effect of pre-breeding diet quality on breeding date in males. 4. Pre-breeding diet quality was not related to body condition measured 1—2 days after laying, which suggests that females may need to attain a threshold condition before they initiate breeding and successfully rear young. 5. Our results suggest that changes in climatic conditions during the pre-breeding period may have severe consequences for reproductive success by influencing breeding date and egg size. Our work emphasizes the importance of determining how events are linked throughout the annual cycle for understanding the fitness and population dynamics of migratory animals.
Journal of Animal Ecology © 2009 British Ecological Society