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CHANGING CONCEPTS OF GARDEN DESIGN IN LAHORE FROM MUGHAL TO CONTEMPORARY TIMES

ABDUL REHMAN
Garden History
Vol. 37, No. 2 (Winter 2009), pp. 205-217
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/27821596
Page Count: 13
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CHANGING CONCEPTS OF GARDEN DESIGN IN LAHORE FROM MUGHAL TO CONTEMPORARY TIMES
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Abstract

Lahore, capital of Punjab in Pakistan has a rich history of garden-making spreading over three important historical periods: Mughal (1526–1749), British colonial (1849–1947), and post-independence. The tradition of formal gardens in the form of a charbagh (fourfold garden) with khyabans (walkways) and the elaborate use of water started in the subcontinent with the arrival of the Mughal emperor Babur (r. 1526–30) and continued through the Sikh period (1748–1849). By the end of Mughal rule, Lahore had become a garden city and had a large number of pleasure, funerary, and residential gardens. The British brought a new concept of landscape to Pakistan and gave more emphasis to horticultural and botanical aspects. Finally, the gardens built after the independence of Pakistan in 1947 were still based upon the principles of British tradition but also continued the use of water in a different form. This paper discusses the underlying themes and design principles of gardens built in these three historical periods and their physical and functional character in the current socio-cultural environment.

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