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Socialization and Racial Identity Among Black Americans

David H. Demo and Michael Hughes
Social Psychology Quarterly
Vol. 53, No. 4 (Dec., 1990), pp. 364-374
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2786741
Page Count: 11
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Socialization and Racial Identity Among Black Americans
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Abstract

This study examines the social structural processes and arrangements related to racial group identification for a national sample of black American adults. We argue that primary socialization experiences, particularly parental messages concernings the meaning of being black, are important in shaping racial identity. The findings support this prediction; further, they suggest that adult relations with family, friends, and community are important in fostering a sense of group identity. Findings also suggest that integration into mainstream society, as reflected in interracial contact and adult socioeconomic attainment, is associated with less in-group attachment but more positive black group evaluation. Adult SES and interracial contact bolster black group evaluation. Collectively, these findings support a multidimensional conceptualization of black identity.

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