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Marine Regressions and the Evolution of Groundwater Dwelling Amphipods (Crustacea)

Jos Notenboom
Journal of Biogeography
Vol. 18, No. 4 (Jul., 1991), pp. 437-454
Published by: Wiley
DOI: 10.2307/2845485
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2845485
Page Count: 18
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Marine Regressions and the Evolution of Groundwater Dwelling Amphipods (Crustacea)
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Abstract

The orgin of marine lineages of amphipods in continental and insular ground waters is treated, and the importance in it of relative sea-level lowering is weighed. Patterns of distribution and relationships of Hadzioidea, Salentinellidae, Bogidielloidea and Niphargidae are reviewed, with emphasis on the evidence for their direct marine origin, and on their dispersal abilities. The process of troglobitization linked with subterranean evolution, in amphipods is discussed. A two-step model of the evolution of thalassoid lineages is discerned. During the first phase, marine populations colonize crevicular or interstitial habitats. These habitats are physiographically connected with the inland stygohabitats, and are characterized by severe ecological conditions. During the second phase, certain lineages overcome the salinity boundary and colonize inland ground waters through active migration or passive isolation, or through a combination of both. Marine regressions seem of little significance in the first evolutionary phase, where they primarily explain the isolation in coastal ground waters of marine littoral populations, already adapted to subterranean conditions. Vicariance by marine regressions is considered of relatively great evolutionary significance in thalassoid group of low vagility and dispersal ability. This type of vicariance is followed by peripatric speciation, and a largely polychotomous pattern of descent is predicted.

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