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Non-Invasive Detection Of Malignancy By Identification Of Unusual CD44 Gene Activity In Exfoliated Cancer Cells
Yasuhiro Matsumura, Damian Hanbury, Joseph Smith and David Tarin
BMJ: British Medical Journal
Vol. 308, No. 6929 (Mar. 5, 1994), pp. 619-624
Published by: BMJ
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/29722787
Page Count: 6
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Objective—To investigate non-invasive detection of cancer by testing for unusual CD44 gene activity in a clinical sample as an indicator of exfoliated tumour cells. Design—Case-control study. Subjects—44 unselected, consecutive patients with bladder cancer and 46 people with no evidence of neoplasia. Main outcome measure—Presence or absence of large CD44 gene products containing exon 6 derivatives in urine samples. Results—Novel abnormalities in the pattern of expression of this gene, seen specifically in tumour tissue, led to cloning of a newly recognised coding region in it (exon 6). This was tested as a probe for detection of exfoliated malignant cells in naturally voided urine. CD44 gene products extracted from the urine and amplified with polymerase chain reaction contained predicted electrophoretic band of 735 base pairs in 40 of the 44 patients with bladder cancer (sensitivity 91%). Products from 38 of the 46 people with no evidence of neoplasia showed no such band (specificity 83%). Conclusions—Unusual activity of the CD44 locus in neoplasia and malignancy is confirmed, and techniques for the analysis of such activity can enable non-invasive investigation of patients for primary or recurrent bladder cancer or for other tumours that shed neoplastic cells into body fluids.
BMJ: British Medical Journal © 1994 BMJ