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Inhibition of Protein Aggregation in vitro and in vivo by a Natural Osmoprotectant
Zoya Ignatova and Lila M. Gierasch
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vol. 103, No. 36 (Sep. 5, 2006), pp. 13357-13361
Published by: National Academy of Sciences
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/30050791
Page Count: 5
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Small organic molecules termed osmolytes are harnessed by a variety of cell types in a wide range of organisms to counter unfavorable physiological conditions that challenge protein stability and function. Using a well characterized reporter system that we developed to allow in vivo observations, we have explored how the osmolyte proline influences the stability and aggregation of a model aggregation-prone protein, P39A cellular retinoic acidbinding protein. Strikingly, we find that the natural osmolyte proline abrogates aggregation both in vitro and in vivo (in an Escherichia coli expression system). Importantly, proline also prevented aggregation of constructs containing exon 1 of huntingtin with extended polyglutamine tracts. Although compatible osmolytes are known to stabilize the native state, our results point to a destabilizing effect of proline on partially folded states and early aggregates and a solubilizing effect on the native state. Because proline is believed to act through a combination of solvophobic backbone interactions and favorable side-chain interactions that are not specific to a particular sequence or structure, the observed effect is likely to be general. Thus, the osmolyte proline may be protective against biomedically important protein aggregates that are hallmarks of several late-onset neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's. In addition, these results should be of practical importance because they may enable protein expression at higher efficiency under conditions where aggregation competes with proper folding.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America © 2006 National Academy of Sciences