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Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Host Innate Immune Defenses against Bacterial Sepsis

Thierry Calandra, Céline Froidevaux, Christian Martin and Thierry Roger
The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Vol. 187, Supplement 2. The International Sepsis Forum: First Annual Cambridge Colloquium on Genetic, Molecular, and Cellular Basis of Innate Immunity and Sepsis (Jun. 15, 2003), pp. S385-S390
Published by: Oxford University Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/30084534
Page Count: 6
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Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Host Innate Immune Defenses against Bacterial Sepsis
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Abstract

Macrophages are essential effector cells of innate immunity that play a pivotal role in the recognition and elimination of invasive microorganisms. Mediators released by activated macrophages orchestrate innate and adaptive immune host responses. The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an integral mediator of the innate immune system. Monocytes and macrophages constitutively express large amounts of MIF, which is rapidly released after exposure to bacterial toxins and cytokines. MIF exerts potent proinflammatory activities and is an important cytokine of septic shock. Recent investigations of the mechanisms by which MIF regulates innate immune responses to endotoxin and gram-negative bacteria indicate that MIF acts by modulating the expression of Toll-like receptor 4, the signal-transducing molecule of the lipopolysaccharide receptor complex. Given its role in innate immune responses to bacterial infections, MIF is a novel target for therapeutic intervention in patients with septic shock.

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