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Observations on the Pre-Erythrocytic Stages of Plasmodium Relictum, Plasmodium Cathemerium, and Plasmodium Gallinaceum in Various Birds

Clay G. Huff
The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Vol. 88, No. 1 (Jan. - Feb., 1951), pp. 17-26
Published by: Oxford University Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/30089736
Page Count: 10
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Observations on the Pre-Erythrocytic Stages of Plasmodium Relictum, Plasmodium Cathemerium, and Plasmodium Gallinaceum in Various Birds
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Abstract

1. Search for pre-erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium relictum, Plasmodium cathemerium and Plasmodium gallina-ceum in 15 new parasite-host combinations resulted as follows: a. Neither pre-erythrocytic nor erythrocytic stages were found in the following combinations: P. relictum in chickens or guinea fowl; P. cathemerium in ring-neck doves; P. gallinaceum in guinea fowl, California Valley quail or ring-neck doves. b. Pre-erythrocytic but no erythrocytic stages were found in P. relictum in turkeys, pheasants and ducks; P. cathemerium in ducks; P. gallinaceum in turkeys and canaries. c. Both pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic stages were found in canaries inoculated with sporozoites of P. cathemerium and in pheasants inoculated with sporozoites of P. gallinaceum. d. Erythrocytic but no pre-erythrocytic stages were found in domestic pigeons inoculated with sporozoites of P. gallinaceum. 2. In the 21 parasite-host combinations represented in this and previous work on these species of parasites, pre-erythrocytic stages were found in 13 (or 61.9%) of them, while erythrocytic stages were found in only 6 (or 28.6%) of them. 3. No clear relationship was discovered between the ability of sporozoites to develop in the tissues of hosts and the systematic classification of the hosts. 4. Degenerating pre-erythrocytic stages were observed along with normal ones in the tissues of ducks inoculated with sporozoites of either P. relictum or P. gallinaceum. 5. Degenerative changes in the pre-erythrocytic stages of P. gallinaceum in chickens immunized by previous infection were similar in appearance to the changes observed in corresponding stages effected either by natural immunity or by antimalarial drugs. 6. The morphology of the pre-erythrocytic stages of P. cathemerium was found to be very similar to that of P. relictun, but slight differences were observed. 7. An intensive search of the tissues of chicks which received intravenous inoculations of the sporozoites from 100 to 300 mosquitoes infected with P. gallinaceum revealed the presence of first generation (cryptozoic) stages only in the spleen. After the first schizogony all organs except bone marrow were found to be infected with pre-erythrocytic stages. 8. Morphological similarities between the exoerythrocytic stages of P. gallinaceum and of Leucocytozoon indicate a possibly closer systematic relationship between Plasmodium and Leucocytozoon than is generally believed.

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