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Experimental Canine Leptospirosis: IV. Evaluation of Selected Antibiotics in the Therapy of Acute Experimental Leptospira icterohemorrhagiae Infections in Immature Dogs

H. W. Yoder, E. N. Bergman and C. A. Gleiser
The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Vol. 100, No. 3 (May - Jun., 1957), pp. 257-267
Published by: Oxford University Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/30098340
Page Count: 11
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Experimental Canine Leptospirosis: IV. Evaluation of Selected Antibiotics in the Therapy of Acute Experimental Leptospira icterohemorrhagiae Infections in Immature Dogs
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Abstract

1. Streptomycin, penicillin, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline were evaluated in the therapy of experimental acute leptospirosis in immature dogs infected with Lept. icterohemorrhagiae. Therapy was initiated only after obvious clinical symptoms were manifest, including the visible onset of jaundice in one-half or more of the dogs employed. 2. Evidence obtained from 6 trials, employing a total of 103 dogs, demonstrated that all 4 antibiotics were effective in reducing the severity of the disease as evidenced by the significantly lower mortality rate, reduction of the magnitude and duration of jaundice, decreased duration of pyrexia and leptospiremia, and lower blood urea nitrogen and plasma bilirubin levels. Penicillin produced the most dramatic effects, terminating leptospiremia most abruptly. 3. Every surviving dog developed a significant serum leptospirial agglutinating antibody titer, but antibiotic therapy generally inhibited the magnitude of these titers. 4. Leptospiruria was demonstrated in 7 of the 21 (33.3%) surviving control dogs but in none of the 43 surviving dogs which received antibiotic therapy during the acute phase. 5. On the basis of these studies, it may be concluded that penicillin, streptomycin, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline are of definite value in the treatment of acute canine leptospirosis caused by Lept. icterohemorrhagiae if intensive therapy is initiated shortly after the onset of obvious clinical disease and is maintained for at least 5 days.

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