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Prevention of Haemophilus influenzae Type b Infections in Apache and Navajo Children

Mathuram Santosham, Beth Rivin, Mark Wolff, Raymond Reid, Wendy Newcomer, G. William Letson, Janné Almeido-Hill, Claudette Thompson and George R. Siber
The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Vol. 165, Supplement 1. Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Prevention of Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Jun., 1992), pp. S144-S151
Published by: Oxford University Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/30112316
Page Count: 8
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Prevention of Haemophilus influenzae Type b Infections in Apache and Navajo Children
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Abstract

Prospective surveillance of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease has been done since 1981 in two high-risk populations, White Mountain Apaches and Navajos. The attack rate in children <5 years of age is 5-10 times higher than in the general US population. Three vaccines were evaluated. Unconjugated Hib capsular polysaccharide produced lower antibody responses in 18- and 24-month-old Apache infants than in white infants. HbOC (Hib oligosaccharide covalently linked to the nontoxic mutant diphtheria toxin $CRM_{197}$) produced low antibody responses in Navajo infants after one or two doses but induced responses similar to those in whites after three doses. The responses of 18-month-old Navajos to HbOC were lower than those of whites, but most achieved protective levels. PRP-OMP (Hib capsular polysaccharide linked to the outer membrane protein complex of Neisseria meningitidis) produced good immune responses in 2-month-old Navajo and Apache infants after a single dose. This vaccine was >90% efficacious in protecting Navajo infants from Hib disease when given at 2 and 4 months of age. Even a single dose achieved a high protective efficacy.

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