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Some Hypotheses on Postglacial Migrations of the Fire-Bellied Toad, Bombina bombina (Linnaeus) and the Yellow-Bellied Toad, Bombina variegata (Linnaeus)

J. W. Arntzen
Journal of Biogeography
Vol. 5, No. 4 (Dec., 1978), pp. 339-345
Published by: Wiley
DOI: 10.2307/3038027
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3038027
Page Count: 7
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Some Hypotheses on Postglacial Migrations of the Fire-Bellied Toad, Bombina bombina (Linnaeus) and the Yellow-Bellied Toad, Bombina variegata (Linnaeus)
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Abstract

The occurence of two species of Bombina in Europe can be explained by the vicariant effect of one or more Pleistocene galciations. In themountains Bombina variegata developed, whereas in the lowlands a lowland form, Bombina bombina arose. The Appennine mountains served as a refuge for Bobina variegata pachypus, the Balkan mountains as refuges for Bombina variegata kolombatovici and Bombina variegata scabra, and the Northern Balkan mountain probably served as a refuge for Bombina v. variegata. Bombina bombina took refuge in the steppes bordering the Black and the Caspian Seas. When the climate again became more favourable, the toads spread from these refuges. It is suggested that enclaves of Bombina variegata, which today are found on isolated mountains, have arisen due to the postglacial advance of Bombina bombina, and that this species has superseded Bombina variegata in the sorrounding lowlands in a process of hybridization and competition. The only possible postglacial migration routes migration routes of Bombina to the Hungarian Plains and the plain round Prague lead upstream along the Danube and the Elbe.

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